Monday, September 30, 2019

Net Neutrality Outline

Net Neutrality Presentation 1. What is Net Neutrality? a. Net Neutrality is best defined as a network design principle. The idea is that a maximally useful public information network aspires to treat all content, sites, and platforms equally. This allows the network to carry every form of information and support every kind of application. The principle suggests that information networks are often more valuable when they are less specialized – when they are a platform for multiple uses, present and future. i. Basically what the Internet is today, an Open Network. i. The opposite of a Closed Network, where the provider determines content. b. Net Neutrality is a network design paradigm that argues for broadband network providers to be completely detached from what information is sent over their networks. c. What keeps the Internet open is Net Neutrality — the longstanding principle that preserves our right to communicate freely online. This is the definition of an open Int ernet. d. With Net Neutrality, the network's only job is to move data—not to choose which data to privilege with higher quality service. iii.Think of another open network like electric grid 1. Innovation-driving network 2. Why should you care? e. Censorship f. Blocking/ Discrimination iv. All data delivered at the same speed regardless of content 2. No preference to a particular service over another a. Think Skype over Facetime. v. Net neutrality also means that carriers can't tack on an extra cost for heavy users; everyone can stream and download as much content as they like. vi. No penalty fees attached to visiting different categories of websites.Devices share and share alike; carriers treat a smart phone no differently than a desktop. vii. A tiered Internet would also make it easier for content streams from corporate giants to rule the Web; without net neutrality, innovative startups like Craigslist and Google might not ever have seen enough traffic to get off the ground. g. Bandwidth Throttling viii. Bandwidth Throttling is the intentional slowing of Internet service by an Internet service provider. It is a reactive measure employed in communication networks in an apparent attempt to regulate network traffic and minimize bandwidth congestion. x. To help achieve this, if you use an extraordinary amount of data and fall within the top 5% of Verizon Wireless data users we may reduce your data throughput speeds periodically for the remainder of your then current and immediately following billing cycle to ensure high quality network performance for other users at locations and times of peak demand. Our proactive management of the Verizon Wireless network is designed to ensure that the remaining 95% of data customers aren't negatively affected by the inordinate data consumption of just a few users. . Digital rights and freedoms x. Telecommunication companies are merely a means to an end. In other words, they are merely the gateway to the Internet; they d on’t own the Internet themselves. i. Privacy xi. Wiretapping violation 3. Arguments Against Net Neutrality j. Enforcement xii. Who is supposed to regulate the internet? xiii. Spans across multiple countries k. Government Regulations xiv. Too much control for the government xv. Censorship 3. China xvi. Network Optimization 4. Greater good 5. % of users ruining network performance for 95% xvii. Antipiracy 6. Makes the ability to stop piracy 7. Shutting down â€Å"rouge† websites providing pirated content xviii. Special Services 8. Certain services that are need maybe should have first run at the network/ higher faster speeds 4. Conclusion l. Who owns the internet? xix. Telecommunication companies are merely a means to an end. In other words, they are merely the gateway to the Internet; they don’t own the Internet themselves.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Which Is Better, True Belief and Knowledge?

In Meno, Socrates and Meno have a discussion on virtue and they encounter a problem. If virtue is teachable, it must be knowledge. However, since there are no teachers and students of virtue, virtue must not be taught. So they think that virtue is not knowledge. And then they start the discussion on what is true belief and knowledge. In this essay, I would evaluate Socrates’s explanation on why knowledge is better than mere true belief and the reasons that I agree with Socrates’s proposition. Socrates’s explanation To begin with, Socrates first questions whether true belief is something no less useful than knowledge.Socrates notes that true belief and knowledge guide to the true action. He illustrates the idea by an example. To clarify Socrates’s example, I will apply his example on our campus. Suppose I need to guide a friend to Chong Yuet Ming Physics Building. I have no idea where it locate and I haven’t been to there. Now, I can visit the buildi ng if someone with the knowledge of the path guides me there or I have the knowledge of the path. But a true belief, which may be the intuition, perception, will also be equally effective in reaching the destination.If my belief is that the destination is northwest of the main building, and I convince my friend to the destination. From an outside observer, he cannot distinguish whether I have the knowledge of the path or I just luckily arrive there according to my true belief. Socrates states that â€Å"correct opinion (true belief) is no less useful than knowledge† because no matter which proposition, either true belief or knowledge, someone’s action still can be guided correctly. Although I do not agree this statement, I will discuss it in later paragraph. So, what makes the different between true belief and knowledge?Socrates thinks that the difference between them is the justification, which is the reasoning or the rationale for your belief. The person with knowled ge has the ability to account of the why behind the truth whereas the person with mere true belief knows only the truth. If someone has knowledge, then he has the ability to account for the action and his mind retains knowledge. It will be secured for future use. However, although true belief guide you to a right action, the belief will go away from you mind easily. Socrates proposes that if one does not tie the true beliefs down, they will run away and escape.If tied, true beliefs stay where they are put. Moreover, once they are tied down, they become knowledge. True beliefs are grasped by the mind only fleeting before they are corrupted or lost. But we can tether them by working out the reason. If we has the reason for the believe, then the true belief is justified and become knowledge. Evaluation for Socrates explanation Firstly, I would like to discuss about Socrates’s proposition that knowledge and true belief always guide to the right action. I shall argue that it would be better that true belief guides to the right action in a better way than knowledge guides.I believe that knowledge does not always guide to the destination. For example, I have knowledge of only one path to Chong Yuet Ming Physics Building. According to the knowledge, I walk along the path. It is not guaranteed I can arrive the building. Maybe murdered happened and police has blocked the road for investigation. Maybe the path that in your mind is not up-to-date and that particular path now leads you to another building, say Ming Wah Building. In this case, even you have knowledge of going to the building, you cannot go there. True beliefs, however, always guide you to the right action.As long as we have true beliefs, we always can be guided correctly. For example, as long as I am lucky enough, I can visit Chong Yuet Ming Building even there is only one path to the building. Through, I still agree that knowledge is better the mere true belief. People cannot lucky all the life in r eality. That means we cannot solve all problem by our belief. We need knowledge to live. For ideal case, an ignorant housewife can invest her money by merely her belief and win the market all time. However, does it happen in the reality? Even it happens, there are just very little cases.Without knowledge, it is difficult to live in the world. Comparing a ignorant housewife and a professional experienced investor investing the stock market, they may both lose money. For the investor, he may be wrong in some decision and lose money. But if he could have a lesson from that, he may gain and revise his knowledge of the stock market. Next time, he may keep doing this in a row. Finally, the probability to earn money increases. For the ignorant housewife, if she do not learn from the fault, or tie down the true belief, the probability of earning money would not increase.Therefore, if someone learn from the fault and form a better knowledge on that field, it will be better to him because the probability of doing the right action increases. In addition, we should not focus too much on the result too much. If we just focus on whether one finally achieve destination only, it may suggest that result is the ONLY thing we should take consideration. If that is the case, then we may agree that people can earn money by kidnapping, stealing or robbering. But we shall agree that earning money by such process is not accepted.Then, I think that achieving the goal by some process may not be good even the goal can be achieved. Hence, we should also consider the process which guides to the destination or result, but not just merely the result. I think that why knowledge is better than true belief is that the process of the right action who is guided by knowledge is better than that who is guided by true belief. Looking back to the example, what is the difference between someone guided knowledge and guided by true belief if they both arrive the destination is the experience and the var iation of the path.Consider a person with merely true belief, he may make decision by something like I should go this way and I hope the way is not dead-ended. Why I have been walking so long time and haven’t arrived yet? Did I made some wrong decision? When can I arrive? I have no idea how to go there, and etc. Although he finally arrive the building, he had hard feeling at all. He may feel depressed, anxious, doubtful, and uncertain. Also, there is lots of variation for the paths. He may walk a very long path to the destination. For example, someone take a bus to somewhere.He believes that he need to get off the bus at the 3rd stop and walk along the road. However, the best way is to get off the bus at the 7th stop. He leaves the bus 2 stops earlier. Although he has true belief and arrive the destination, it may not good to him because he has been walked a very long and unnecessary way. Knowledge, on the other hand, guides someone with appropriate process. If someone with k nowledge, says he know the map of campus in the example, can effectively arrive the destination without anxious, doubtful feelings.Someone may argue that having knowledge may not arrive the destination effectively because you may only have knowledge of a circuitous path. I shall say that it may be the case, just similar as true belief. People having true belief may or may not arrive destination effectively, so as people having knowledge. But at least the person may not have hard feelings, which already make knowledge better than true belief. Though there is some argument which I think is not correct in Socrates’s explanation, there are still lots of evidence to show that knowledge is better than mere true belief.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Risk assessment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Risk assessment - Essay Example All the above risks posses a challenge of exposure to risks of loss hence uncertainty and instilled fear in major economic, social and political pillars of the society (Adams,pp 23). Risk assessment on the other hand involves a systematic method of looking at or identifying work and field activities activities, considering all alternatives in relation to what could go wrong in is certainly likely to occur, and deciding on suitable control measures to prevent loss or help to avoid such losses, damage or related injuries in the workplace or work environments. Risk assessment is also the careful examination of the diverse and numerous factors that can bring about these risks. The Assessment should include the controls required to eliminate, reduce, and attach to cause or minimize the risks (Adams,pp111). REASONS FOR RISK ASSESSMENT Therefore, the need for risk assessment can never be underestimated given that it is the process that will always lead individuals into risk management activ ities. Risk Assessments are a critical requirement and necessity for most human and businesses organizations (Wisher,pp 155-9). If you don’t know, or appreciate where the risks are, you are placing yourself as an individual, your employees if any, your customers and your organization or business in danger and all the stakeholders that surround your operations. Therefore to an individual doing business risk assessment is a must thing to ensure minimization of risks and risk related activities, this leads to profit and wealth maximization hence successful business operations. Legal environment and systems surrounding businesses given their countries of operation also forces employers and owners of ventures or businesses must always look into all work involvements that are likely to cause harm in order to decide whether they are doing enough to meet their legal obligations so as to avoid legal risk which result into financial losses as payments are made due to court orders. In b usiness its always reasonably practicable for employers to meet the legal minimum requirement of operations as laid down by the law requirements of the land or state. The main aim of this should always be to assist reduce the risks as much as is 'reasonably practicable' (Gleason,pp275-7 ). Risk assessment is also meant to help reduce the costs of operating business. This is because when stringent risk control measures are put in place, there would be less payments for insurance premiums hence reduced insurance costs. Risk assessment also contributes to social well being of the societal members. This because with the psychological feeling of reduced risk comes the peace of mind and this puts in place a peaceful and healthy growing society. PROCEDURE OR PROCESS OF RISK ASSESSMENT Normally, there are no hard or fastened rules as to how risk assessment should be conducted due to the sole reason that each and every organization is unique and very much different from each other. This diff erence is on the diversified ways in which most organizations and businesses operate, the kinds of businesses in which they are involved which are also not the same and also the laws that govern each and every business (Luhmann,pp236).

Friday, September 27, 2019

Evaluate the role of finance director in an organisation of your Essay

Evaluate the role of finance director in an organisation of your choice - Essay Example The finance director, especially Tesco Plc’s finance director, has other functions (Brealey, 2011). The other functions include setting up and spearheading the implementation of the strategically planned financial plans towards accomplishing established company goals and objectives. In addition, the finance director is fully responsible for the subordinates’ safekeeping and true and correct recording of all financial reports of the company. Correspondingly, the finance director must analyse the financial data as a tool for recommending future finance-related management and marketing strategies. The Tesco finance director reports to other top level corporation officers (Megginson, 2008). The finance directors reports to the chief executive officer. Likewise, the finance director presents the financial position of the company to the board of directors the board of directors are the investors of the company. As investors, the members of the board of directors are part owners of the corporation. The other owners of the corporation are the investors or stockholders who are not members of the board of directors. Likewise, the finance director attends meetings of the board of directors. During the attendance, the finance director presents his financial reports. The financial reports include the prior accounting period’s financial position accounts. There are other functions of the finance director, including Tesco Plc’s finance director (Melicher, 2008). The finance director monitors and manages the finance department of the company. The finance department includes the accounting department, the budget department, and the treasury department. The treasury department is in charge of safekeeping the corporation’s cash and other cash equivalent accounts. Further, the finance director contributes his share to ensuring the budget amounts hasten the accomplishment of strategic company targets and benchmarks. The finance

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Sec 305 Week 4 assignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Sec 305 Week 4 assignment - Essay Example Intrusion to these satellites would lead to a failure of the information system to convey real time data and also data integrity. Chinese started invading the United States and government in 2003. A successful attack was in 2007 where two United States government satellites and the Pentagons computer network were hacked by the Chinese military hackers. This was after a series of invasions which had Titan rain as the code name. The motive was to completely shut down Pentagon server computer which was had more than 1500 computers connected to it and to steal systems that are sensitive. Some of these were, technologies used in surveillance and avionics for aircrafts (Barnes and Julian 2008). The attack is believed to have been through an email scum where a PDF document that appeared to have very important information. The hacker set up an email account that would be gotten rid of later. The account was then set up and made to have a screen name appear as that one of the target. The vict im probably saw the message and thought that it came from one of his colleagues and opened it. This launched the attached PDF and led to an automatic installation of malicious software in the machine. When the virus had completely configured itself the hacker had full control of the machine. With the hacker’s manipulation, the virus searched for files in the system. It then archived them and sent them back to the hacker through File Transfer Protocol or Hyper Text Transfer Protocol. The virus had sent approximately 24,000 files back to the Chinese hackers. When the pentagon realized that they had been hacked it was too late but it managed to use its sophisticated technology which indicated that the attacks came from the Chinese government. It later took its computers offline for about three weeks to carry out thorough investigations and intensify their firewalls security (Barnes and Julian 2008). Evidently, a comparison of the US F-22 jet fighter and the Chengdu J-20 fighter has proved the success of Chinas intrusions. Though it had been a bit harder for the Chinese engineers to make an exact replica of the engine, they managed to produce a cockpit that looks exactly like that of the F-22 jet. The satellite attack was conducted through Svalbard ground station located in Spitsbergen, Norway. It is believed that they used it because it depends on the internet to transfer files and accessing of data. It targeted two satellites, one used to provide information on terrain observation and the other used for earth climate observation. Terra AM-1, a satellite used by national Aeronautics and Space Administration, was completely under the hackers control but lucky enough they never took advantage of it (Barnes and Julian 2008). They only left Chinese military inscriptions which passed information on disabling an enemy’s ground based telecommunication facilities. The Landsat-7 was the second satellite intruded. Experts said it experienced more than twelve minutes of interference. Such an attack posed potential threats such as denial, degradation or manipulation of the transmission by the satellite The intrusion was a wakeup call for the United States. It made them aware of the Chinese abandonment of the traditional warfare that involved attacks using arsenal via land, water and air to cyber space. This has made it more aware of Chinas

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Human Resource Management - You have been recently appointed by the Essay

Human Resource Management - You have been recently appointed by the board to act as a 'Strategic Business Partner' to help t - Essay Example This has caused the supervisor to abuse power and practice nepotism. The organizational hierarchy of Homecare Housing Association (HHA) is complex and ineffective. This essay seeks to analyze the organizational issues affecting HHA for the last two years. The essay also seeks to come up with the appropriate recommendations to avert further organizational turmoil. The top management of the organization is entirely out of touch with the employees. Organizational leadership is meant to be inspirational through shared values and goals. The organizational leadership in HHA functions through coercion and instilling fear. Most leaders are obsessed with self preservation. The result is that employees are left with a sense of confusion and lack of direction. The Homecare Housing association is suffering from lethargy and declining organizational commitment. Rampant job quitting and increased staff turnover are a sign of low job satisfaction. The organization is stuck to policies that have bee n overtaken with time. The organizational policies that led to a strong performance over a decade ago have not been altered. This means the organization unable to adapt to the changing needs. Some of the changes include a large workforce and increased responsibilities. The social climate in the organization is unhealthy. The organization has a weak reward management system. Homecare Housing association has coercive and flat systems. The organization has uniform feedback system which is dysfunctional. This has caused inconsistency and difficulties in the execution of roles. The expressed values and the actual values are not the same. This explains why the policy framework stated in the organizational strategic paper is not implemented when it comes to quality assessment and enforcement. The employees are not involved in the decision making process. The human resource management lacks a clear strategy of getting the employee and the client views of the quality of services delivered by the workers. The conflicts between and values have contributed to uncertainty in the Homecare Housing Association. The customers and employees have conflicts that reveal declining personnel motivation. The organization is suffering from little or no innovation. The organization has no incentives for innovation and risk taking. The value reward system is weak; this has affected the morale of the employees. The human resource management has not established communication between various units or bases. The employees between one unit and another hardly communicate on progressive organizational matters. The high turnover rates in the organization are a clear sign that the organization is losing its competitive edge (Locke and Latham 2002). The organization has been losing its employees to other market players who have better terms and conditions. The human resource management has been accused of favoritism. The subordinates have not voice when it comes to resource allocation. There are concerns that the favoritism is affecting the shift allocation system where supervisors allocate the best shifts to their friends. Homecare is about service delivery and client satisfaction. The clients have expressed concerns of neglect and poor treatment. The organizational culture in Homecare Housing association is bogged down by partisan interest of a religious nature. There is an argument that some of the employees have anti-Jewish sentiments. In a multicultural

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Case studies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Case studies - Essay Example It started as small company but it grew so rapidly that, in 2004 it had been ranked 25th among the Top 50 S&P 500 companies by Business Week magazine. The company has set itself as an example for the other companies in the SME sectors across the world regarding how to become successful in a short span of time. The period of 1990s seemed to be most successful for the company when on average it had opened a new store almost in each working day. This high pace of growth continued even after its entry into the new millennium also. In fact it had been able to maintain thin momentum until recently. The ongoing global down turn had also affected the company badly like the others. Since 2008, it has closed around 900 stores in the United States as demand has declined sharply. However, it still has a growth plan outside the territory of USA in near future. In fact, it is planning to open as many as 900 new stores in the countries outside the USA. (Starbucks- company Overview, 2009) Very often, this company has faced several types of protests on the grounds of trade related policies, employee relations, impacts on environment, and so on. But in the mid of all these issues it has managed to grow at a very fast rate (Starbucks- company Overview, 2009). There are a number of factors that have helped Starbucks to become so successful. These factors are as follows- Rapid expansion on a global basis: Starbucks had adopted the method of expanding its market not only in the domestic front, but also in the foreign countries. This expansion plan has been able to make the name of the Starbucks known by a huge number of people around the world which simply has resulted in magnificent increase in the customer base of this company. By creating its presence in the global market on strong feet, it has been able to dominate the segment of market it caters to. It has been rated as one of the best company to work with and its pleasant working environment has made the company able to expand at such a high pace, while retaining its customer base at its other outlets. Creation of brand loyalty: One major reason behind its success is that it has been able to create huge brand loyalty among its customers. The company has always been careful in meeting the customers' need and providing them with memorable experiences so that they make a return to this brand again and again. This is why the company has been rates as one of those global brands that have created highest level of impact on their consumers. In 2003, a magazine had considered Starbucks as one of most trustworthy brand. Its recognition as one of the most impactful and most trustworthy brand has enhanced its brand value and has made its logo recognizable by the most. Consequently, it has helped to retain its customer-base. The degree of loyalty of the customers to the Starbucks brand is so huge that even when the customers go any foreign location, they visit Starbucks' outlet to have a cup of coffee that they enjoy in their own home town. Adoption of innovative strategies for business: the company has employed a highly skilled research team for developing innovative ways of attracting more and more customers to its brand, while retaining the existing customers' loyalty towards this brand. For example, in 2004, it introduced a CD burning service in one of its outlets in California. This innovative service allows its

Monday, September 23, 2019

Jewish Civilization Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Jewish Civilization - Assignment Example Significant of Tanakh to Jewish history Jewish are also called â€Å"the people of the book†. After the demolition of the Second Temple in 70 CE, Jewish sacrifices were impossible and the life style of Jews turned to Tanakh study accompanied with synagogue prayers. The study Tanakh including other Jewish writings is important to the life of religious. Tanakh, Talmud, and other writing are major sources to learn about Jewish history and God’s commandments, whereby this two continue to portray a main part in Jewish. To remember various things that God did to the Jewish and His commandments, selections of important Tanakh and prophets takes place in the synagogues. To help in good interpretation of the God’s commandments, effective rabbinical writings develop daily. Studying Tanakh is significant in the Jewish history since it is an important portion of the Jewish children’s education, and thus Jewish religion centers on intensive writing study. 3. Oral Torah Apart from the written Torah, there was also oral Torah, which God gave to Moses at Mount Sinai during the forty years Israelites took in the desert. Oral Torah involves two parts, the Gemara and the Mishnah both of which gives a wide range of principles included in the written torah. The Oral Torah is a tradition explaining the meaning of the written Torah, ways of interpreting them, and ways of applying the Laws. Jewish believe that Gog gave Moses and taught him the Oral Torah, who taught the other Jewish. This Jewish tradition remained functional until 2nd century C.E. During this century, Jewish piled up the Oral Torah and wrote it down in a form of a document known as Mishnah. Examples of oral Torah include the Halachah (Laws given to Moses at Sinai) and the Shlosh Esreh Middot Sheha Torah Nidreshet Bahem (The thirteen principles of Torah Exegesis). Significance of Oral Torah to Jewish History The Jewish theology believes that Oral Torah brings value as commentary, history, an d understanding of how Jewish interpreted certain aspects. For instance, â€Å"an eye for an eye† statement means financial compensation. However, many Messiah teaching are in the Oral Torah and extra information explaining the meanings of these Messiah teaching are in the Talmud. Additionally, Oral Torah teaches us the issue and thinking processes of Christians and therefore Oral Torah deserve good understanding and respect. Oral Torah is significant because it contains broad interpretation of the written Torah in the light of transforming circumstances to enable it adapt new situations. However, it shows Jewish people daily basis requirements. Although different Jewish people apply the Oral Torah laws in dissimilar ways, they normally acknowledge significance of Oral Torah by ensuring that all oral principles remain applicable. Nevertheless, Oral Torah plays a significant role in the current Judaism practices. 8. Siddur A Siddur is a Jewish prayer book, which contains a set of daily prayers. The earliest portions of this Jewish prayer book are the Hear O Israel (Shema Yisrael), and the Numbers (Priestly Blessing), which were contained in the Torah. Soncino in Italy published the Siddur in the year 1486, although it its distribution was in the year 1865. As early as 1538, Siddur started to come into view in the vernacular. Significance of Siddur to the Jewish History Siddur prayer book is significant to the Jewish

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Is it democratic or undemocratic that smaller states can make big Essay

Is it democratic or undemocratic that smaller states can make big changes - Essay Example 1-20). According to some scholars, the advantages given to these small states are a key part of the constitution, and that the stakeholders should not worry of this trend. On the other hand, some perceive this situation as a difficult case that cannot have an immediate solution. They see this as infringement of the voting power of citizens which significantly impacts on the democracy of the senate (Liptak par. 1-20). The substantial population differences between large and small states are a key cause for demographic gap that leads to a wide variance in the political power. The issue of the filibuster in the senate also threatens democracy according to some scientists. This gives the senators in these small states to magnify their power using the filibuster greater than the senators of large states. Since the small states senators form the majority in the senate, they have the tendency of blocking or shaping the legislation passed in the senate. This ends up bringing benefits to the conservatives contrary to the liberals. Some critical bills in the senate like the carbon emission, immigration and campaign spending, suffer rejection due to the number of a small state senators. The federal state role in injecting funds to the small states has done a lot to assist those residents in these states. This has made these states enjoy more political power that other states contrary to the constitution that stipulates equal political voice irrespective of the population (Liptak par. 1-20). Some scholars still insist that it is democratic for these small states to enjoy these privileges so as to prevent them from sidelining by the majority. They emphasize that, without an appropriate strategy, to protect the minority states, all the wealth will end up in the prosperous states. Another argues that urban areas already have key

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Types of Online Presence Essay Example for Free

Types of Online Presence Essay Amazon= Amazon is a brick and click business this means that it can only be connected through the internet and it has got a wide range of consumers who are mainly over 18 (you will not be able to purchase goods from the internet)  Name of Online Business: Amazon  Target market: Amazon target customers of any age who have an interest in just about anything from books to furniture to toys to clothes. They used to be an online bookstore and so thats where their sales were based on. Who are their competitors?  Although they are online their competitors are companies such as Argos, Whsmiths, and Waterstones.  What is the online businesss offer?  They sell products such as books, computer games, and electronics and home furnishings.  Do I think that the website is effective and why?  I think that Amazons website is effective because it is easy to use, the look and feel of it warms to me as I believe it feels like it is ideal for me to browse on. The structure of the website is well supported because it shows me in straight points what each product has to offer and how much they are Name of Online Business: Misco  Target Market:  Their marketplace is aimed at people who have an interest in electrical goods and wish to purchase goods such as office supplies, computers, cables, CDs and security products.  Who are their competitors?  An example of two competitors for Misco is PC World and Maplin  What is the online businesss offer? : Misco is a leading online provider of IT services and products to the public and private sector. They offer great deals for home, business and public sector establishments. Do I think that the website is effective and why?  I think that Miscos website is effective because it is easy to use, the look and feel of it warms to me it feels like it is ideal for me to browse on. The structure of the website is well supported because it shows me in straight points what each product has to offer.  Name of Online Business: HMV generates sales revenue through the sale of good in store like CDs, books and DVDs. This is the main front runner in sales, creating large profits in the millions especially when new CDs and DVDs are released. Target market: Their target market is aimed at people who want to purchase DVDs, posters  Who are their competitors?  WhSmiths, supermarkets such as Tesco and Sainsburys, Amazon, and other mass merchant retailers.  What is the online businesss offer? : They offer products such as CDs, DVDs, and books.  Task 2 (P2 M1) Describe the planning and implementation issues a business would need to consider to go online  The planning and implementation issues that a business needs to consider when going online are things such as: Human resources  Human resources is when an organisation describes the application of skills, knowledge and experience. The most skilful person who has the experience needs to be hired and the employer needs to think about whether this employee is right to leave the website creating tasks to as it could be a mistake to use a wrong person who may not be experienced. Delivery to warehouses  Delivery is when something is delivered to someone and they pay for the item either online or in person. You need to plan where you are going to have the warehouse and whether it is a suitable and well reliable place to store stock. The reason being is because when someone orders something online you will need to let the courier know where the warehouse is and you should have the address on the website so that you can keep the customers informed of where their items are going to be distributed from. Customers  Customers are people who buy your product and help fund your wages or help the business run successfully. You will need to start attracting your customers before you can start to show your business online because there will be no point in having the business if the potential customers know nothing about the newly formed business. There needs to be a lot of advertisements distributed so that the customers can find out what the business is all about and if there is a website something to look at for extra information. Security  Security is protection against danger, loss and criminal acts. Security is important for both parties- the user and the person who is buying items off the website. The reason being is because the customer needs to be careful about distributing their personal details about themselves online because anyone could steal the details and someone could steal their identity and pretend to be the owner of the card. Also the website may be insecure. Everyone knows about the credit crunch and the recession and they may not want to purchase things online using a credit or debit card. Legal Issues  There are some laws that the owner of the website will need to abide by. They are the Trade Description Act, Sales of Goods Act and the Consumer Protection Act. If the website owner is having images or worded information distributed on the website they have to be complied with the copyright act. The reason being is because whatever they have put on their website they have to make sure that it isnt a part of someone elses work, otherwise the actual owner could press charges and want to sue the owner for copyright infringement and may have to come up with a hell of a lot of money for payment.

Friday, September 20, 2019

A Study On A Written Constitution Politics Essay

A Study On A Written Constitution Politics Essay This essay will be defining what a constitution is, how its use and what its used for and whether or not Britain should adopt a written constitution. A written constitution is an official document that defines the nature of the constitutional settlement, the policy that governs the political system and the rights of citizens and governments in a codified form. It defines the laws, customs and conventions that define the composition and powers of organs of the state. (Jones, B., Kavanagh, D., Morgan, M., Norton, P. 2007). Constitutions vary in terms of their purpose, it may be constructed in such a way as to embody and protect fundamental principles (such as the individual liberty) principles that should be beyond the reach of the transient wish of the people. (Jones, B., Kavanagh, D., Morgan, M., Norton, P. 2007). Unlike most other countries The United Kingdom does not have a written constitution in a single document, but derives from a number of sources that are part written and part unwritten because there are laws, House of Parliament, conventions and understandings that constitute the rules of the formal political game. These rules are as about relationships of power, within the constitution s of a state, and between the state and the larger society. It can adjust readily to suit changing circumstances. A quote by Leo Amery: if a constitution is meant a written document or series of documents embodying in statutory or declaratory form the principles and structure of our government, then there is, in that sense, no such thing as the British constitution. What we mean by the British constitution is not any deliberate attempt to control and confine our political growth on the basis of a preconceive intellectual plan, reflecting the political theories of a particular group of men or the repossessions of a particular age, but a living structure continuously shaped in the course of history by the interaction of individual purposes and collective instincts with the requirements of ever varying circumstances. (Amery, L. 1952) Although Britain does not have a single document codifying the way its political institutions functions and setting out the basic rights and duties of its citizens, it however has an important constitutional documents. Such as the Magna Carta brought in during 1218, which protects the human rights of the community against the Crown, The Bill of Rights 1689 which extended the powers of government, and the Reform Act 1832 which reformed the system of parliamentary representation. ( The principal sources of what can be called the traditional constitution are four in number: statute law, comprising Acts of Parliament and subordinate legislation made under the authority of the parent Act: common law, comprising legal principles developed an applied by the courts, and encompassing the prerogative powers of the crown and the law and practice of parliament: conventions, constituting rules of behaviour that are considered rules of behaviour that are considered binding by and upon those who operate the constitution but re not enforced by the courts or by the presiding officers in the Houses of Parliament: works of authority, comprising various written works-often but not always accorded authority by reason of their age- that provide guidance and interpretation on uncertain aspects of the constitution. Such works have persuasive authority only. (Jones, B., Kavanagh, D., Morgan, M., Norton, P. 2007). Statue law is the pre-eminent of the four sources and occupies such a position because of the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty. Under this juristically self-imposed concept, the courts recognise only the authority of Parliament formally known as the Queen Parliament to make la, with no body other than Parliament itself having the authority to set aside that law. The courts cannot strike down a law as being contrary to the provisions of the constitution. The House of Lords has come to be increasing constrained by law and regulated by unwritten conventions so that it can now only delay certain bills passed by Commons. (Dearlove and Saunders, 2000). By law, general elections should be held every five years and all adults are allowed to vote, but however, the first-past-the post voting system means that not all votes are of the same power-in sending chosen candidates from particular parties to the House of Commons. This therefore, has huge implications for the organisation of governmental power, making powerful and unyielding single-party rule very much more likely than the compromise of coalition government. (Dearlove and Saunders, 2000).] The supremacy of the Parliament is the backbone of the British Politics and is only possible threatened by aspects of the work of the European Commission and the European Union institution. Parliament can pass, repeal and alter any of Britishs Laws. That is one of the major powers that the government has. When the Conservative leader, Margaret Thatcher banned trade unions at GCHQ believing that they had no place in the organisation and had no importance in the British national security, the government reversed it in 1997 when a new party came to power and was ruled by Tony Blair. ( Constitutions are important because it legitimise a states existence, establishes national valves, provides organising structure and through that stability in government. It also limits the power of the state to protect its citizen. it represents an important stage of evolution away from the flexible monarchical constitution of the past, which had Parliamentary sovereignty and executive supremacy at its heart, towards a regulatory state, in which the power of the executive and the Westminster Parliament, while still significant, is restrained by the existence of subordinate, supranational and parallel powers which it has willed into existence but cannot will away. The constitution is flexible and adaptable it is not bound by the valves of a past age, it can adapt to current circumstances and crisis or changes. Its produces strong and stable government where parliament is sovereign and power is not shared between a range of branches of Government. The Government is effective in terms that it gets what it wants and the people will get what they voted for. The Government has a strong degree of accountability where they are the representatives to the electorate when things go wrong, and people will know who to blame. Written constitution is ruled upon by judges. In Britain judges are unelected and it is therefore undemocratic to take power away from our elected representatives and give it to judges who tend to be quite reactionary. One of the benefits of the current system is that it is flexible. If they have a political mandate from the people, the government can reform the constitution, as with the example of the House of Lords. If you had to have a 2/3 majority in both houses, this measure would never have been passed: neither would devolution. In countries like the USA, it is nearly impossible to change their constitution. There is no guarantee that what is best now will still be best in the next couple of years. A written constitution would make us much less flexible with Europe. There is a strong culture of rights and liberties which stretches back to1214 with Magna Carta and the 1689 Bills of Rights, and which is widely accepted by politicians of all parties, lawyers and judges, the media and civil society as a whole. This consensus makes it impossible for a single government to overturn rights-as government defeats on the proposed detention of terrorist suspects demonstrate. Since 1998 the Human Rights Act has enshrined the European Convention on Human Rights into UK law, and now provides a focus for this culture of rights. Also less developed countries such as Zimbabwe and Iran have a written constitution, if anyone wanted to flaunt democratic procedures it would be as hard as it would with a written constitution. ( . Well, it works doesnt it? So I think thats the answer even if it is on the back of an envelope and doesnt have a written constitution with every comma and every semi colon in place. Because sometimes they can make for difficulties that common sense can overcome. (Lord Callaghan, 1991). Britain has survived very well without a written constitution. The people of the country are not requesting for a constitution so why so it be changed because American has one. People do not understand the rule that preside over the political side so therefore, it is seen as not be needed. ( Without a written constitution, the UK has no Bills of Rights to protect its citizens from an over powerful state. The existing Human Acts Rights provides only weak protection, with judges only able to rule that new laws are non-compliant with the Act -the government can ignore such rulings if it wishes. The Human Acts Rights can easily be amended by a simple majority in both House of Parliament. A written constitution with a proper Bill of Rights would provide much stronger protection for the rights of the citizens. At the moment the judiciary is weak in its ability to act as a check against parliament. A written constitution would increase its powers. The British Parliament is subject to no authority beyond itself and this goes against the principle of the rule of law which the democracy is based on. Also in Europe the context of further political integration in the EU, it is important that it enshrine and clarify Britains Protection from extremists. A written constitution would of fer protection if an extremist came to power and wanted to disregard democratic procedures. ( An article from the Guardian Newspaper 2008 carried news of constitutional proposals drafted by Chris Bryant: Destroying British valves. Where the male children in the UK monarchs take precedence over the female ones in the line of succession to the throne, and reform of the Act of Succession: the law that bans Roman Catholics, or those married to Catholics, from taking their place in the line of succession Why should people worry or even bother about these proposals to repeal such seemingly archaic and irrelevant features of the UKS constitution? (Wintour, P. 2008) ( {Accessed 11/01/10} In conclusion Britain should not adopt a written constitution like America, because if a constitution is put in place it will limit the government or to set out the perimeters which governments must operate then the fact that it can be adapted can be problematic as well. I agree with Lord Callaghan, where he says the system actually works, so why it be changed because it is not codified. Britain has traditional valves that will have to be changed if it adopts a constitution. For example the Human Acts Rights if Britain had a constitution it would have been very difficult for the Acts to gave been placed. There is a huge difference between American and Britain that is why America has A President and Britain has a Prime Minister.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Product Pricing Essay -- essays research papers

Product Pricing The cost of an â€Å"everyday low price† toy: $19.95. The cost of a Rolex watch: $2,465. A great paper explaining why corporations put these prices on products: priceless. Wal-Mart has become the leader in â€Å"everyday low price† pricing, and the number one retailer has brought many businesses to their demise because of their pricing strategy. Recently, Wal-Mart has expanded their sales niche to the toy department putting many specialty toy stores near or completely out of business. This paper will discuss how Wal-Mart priced their line of toys, why Wal-Mart used toys as â€Å"loss leaders† to attract customers, and two alternate methods of pricing marketers can use based on demand and reputation. Toy Pricing Pricing is an important aspect of every business. Chief Financial Officer’s (CFO) use pricing to create financial projections, establish a break-even point, and calculate profit and loss margins (Power Point, 2005). It is the only element in the marketing mix that produces revenue. Price is also one of the most flexible elements of the marketing mix as it can be changed very quickly. This is usually done to beat competitor prices in an attempt to fix the product’s market value position very low (Anderson & Bailey, 1998). After all, high prices make it difficult to become the market share leader. The leading US retailer, Wal-Mart, is an expert at low product pricing as evident in 2004 with $250 billion dollars in sales to their 138 million weekly shoppers. However, they are also responsible for reducing prices so low that it drives specialty stores out of business. This is the effect Wal-mart has had on many toy stores and has almost closed the doors of the famous toy st ore Toys â€Å"R† Us Inc. Wal-Mart set extremely low prices on toys in a very successful pricing strategy to attract customers and become the leader in toy sales (Grant, 2004). This pricing strategy is called market penetration pricing. Penetration pricing is used to enter the market quickly and win a large market share (Anderson & Bailey, 1998). These low prices have taken their toll on toy stores. Toys â€Å"R† Us is now the second largest toy seller in the U.S. behind Wal-Mart. Toys â€Å"R† Us was recently bought for $6.6 million by investors who hope to transform the store into a more viable store for the entire family (D’Innocenzio, 2005). Other toy stores are not as fortunate. FAO In... ...2004, October 12). Wal-Mart wants $10 cds. Rolling Stone. Retrieved on May 2, 2005 from Home&pageregion=single1&rnd=1097616001120&has-player=unknown D’Innocenzio, A. (2005, March 18). Toys R Us deal may reignite the industry. The San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved on April 25, 2005 from http://www.signonsandiego. com/uniontrib/20050318/news_1b18toys.html Grant, L. (2004, October 11). Wal-Mart doesn’t plan to toy much with prices; last year’s cuts hurt other retailers and left giant thinking it slashed too much. Proquest Document. USA Today. Pg B8. Johnson, L. (1999). A review and a conceptual framework of prestige-seeking consumer behavior. Academy of Marketing Science Review. Retrieved on May 4, 2005 from Loss leader. Retrieved on May 3, 2005 from encyclopedia/l/lo/loss_leader.htm Power Point Presentation (2005, May 1). Touro University International. Marketing 501 CD. Price skimming. (2005). Retrieved on May4, 2005 from

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Cosmic Justice :: Creative Writing Short Stories

Cosmic Justice The particular Evil which the space turtle sensed came from one Dr. Quincey P. Mandra, who after a long life of being victimized (at least as he saw it) through one means or another, decided that the time had arrived for him to become a Mad Scientist and wreak his revenge on humanity and creation in general by taking over the world and making it his plaything. (As can be seen, Dr. Mandra was rather narrow of vision, as any self-respecting Mad Scientist these days would have planned to take over the universe, or at least our particular galaxy. Perhaps this was why the elder space turtle seemed unconcerned.) He had already constructed his Evil Headquarters, which he had named The Citadel of Doom (Insert lightning and thunder here). He thought that it was a name that rolled rather nicely off the tongue. It had all that an Evil Mad Scientist could need: attractive art deco living quarters for himself, barracks for his troops, dank dungeons, torture chambers, mutated guard-beasts, booby traps, and lots and lots of insidious machinery that bleeped and buzzed and crackled and made other science fictiony noises. He still needed one thing however...Hordes. Every Evil Mad Scientist needs hordes of mindless drones to do his Evil Bidding.  ³Where will I find Hordes? ² he mused.  ³Where can I find great masses of mindless individuals ready to be indoctrinated and follow a charismatic leader with little or no regard for consequences or even common sense? ² He rejected Congress immediately.  ³I do need some degree of intelligence in my hordes. Overly stupid hordes have been the downfall of many a Mad Scientist. Besides I do want some combat ability. Some, hell! I want soulless killing machines! ² This naturally brought the armed forces to mind, but he rejected them as too fanatical even for him.  ³Frat boys! Hmm...maybe frat pledges. By the time they reach full frat boy status they ¹ve consumed way too much alcohol to be worth anything.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Borders between countries should be banned Essay

In recent years, people discuss many issues in the world. One of them is borders between countries are reason of decline the world economy. However, there are many political reasons which prevent abolishment of borders. This essay will try to explain why borders between countries should be banned. There are several reasons why borders between countries should be banned. Firstly, they impede trades between countries because, countries use different commercial laws. Secondly, borders prevent free movement of capitals in the world. For example, multinational companies should take permission from a country to transfer their capital to another country. Finally, human capitals are prohibited free movement between countries. For example, workers in low-income countries cannot work in developed countries without work visa. All of these can be reasons why borders between countries should be banned. On the other hand, there are opponents who said that borders between countries should be remained because, they have political differences. In addition, some said that borders help to protect a homeland from enemies. It means clear borders can be help any country if has a war. Finally, there are some countries which have special region such as Makah in Saudi Arabia cannot non-Muslim visit this region. All of these can be a reason for borders between countries. In conclusion, it is obvious the borders between countries have substantial reasons. However, the borders impede trade between countries and prevent free movement of human capitals. second example In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of travelers around the world. Without a doubt, there are a number of people discuss the issue that borders between countries should be banned or not. It is an important issue because it concerns economic questions, globalisation and culture. This essay will try to explain why borders between countries

Monday, September 16, 2019

Conflict Management Case Study Essay

What forms of interpersonal power are evident in the case and why? All five forms of interpersonal power appear in various parts of the case study. Coercive power is represented in the case study when John Lasseter began working for the Disney animation studio and came to realize that the powers that be expected nothing but coercion from their employees. People were expected to comply with the way things have always been done. New ideas were neither encouraged nor supported. In addition, top managers sought no input from employees, choosing to make all decisions themselves. When Lasseter started working for Pixar, he experienced reward power. The work he completed for them was heralded and recognized by executives for his innovation. His attitude revealed that he places less importance on monetary reward and more significance on the intrinsic reward of doing a good job. Legitimate power is exemplified when Disney and Pixar merged, and as the standing top creative executive at Pixar Lasseter took on the responsibility for reviving animation at Disney. His role as the creative director gave him the legitimate power to make decisions regarding a wide range of topics in his department. With the title of creative director, he had the formal right to make demands and expect compliance from others in the department. Only after Lasseter’s move to Pixar did he experience referent power. This came after he gained executives’ and coworkers’ admiration for his animation work. The advances he brought to the company also earned the respect and admiration of many, resulting in an increase in referent power. In his previous position at Disney, Lasseter had no referent power. Similar to the case of the referent power, Lasseter gained expert power with his work at Pixar. The knowledge, innovation, and skill that Lasseter brought with him to Pixar instantly earned him this expert power. He was viewed as a key player in achieving innovation because of his expertise in the area of animation. In what ways do the two faces of power appear in the case? The two faces of power, commonly classified as organizational and personal, are evident in a few different areas of Lasseter’s history with Disney and Pixar. The leadership style at his first position at Disney reflected the self-aggrandizing personal face of power, mainly perceived as having a  negative connotation. The unspoken norm at Disney was that lower level employees were to bow down to their superiors and obey their desires. Input from employees was not encouraged in any way. The power that came with a higher position was often used for personal gain. In contrast, operations at Pixar demonstrated the organizational, positive face of power. This face of power is categorized as working for the greater good of the entire organization, desiring to serve others, and working together to foster productivity (Clements, 2014). The team at Pixar pooled their knowledge and expertise to create groundbreaking computer-generated cartoon animation. From then on, Pixar saw many successes because of their ability to hone the organizational face of power. Instead of discouraging input and innovation from employees at all levels, Pixar urged this innovation from employees. As shown with the case of Lasseter at Pixar, they supported the advancement of his pioneering ideas for the benefit it would bring the entire organization. Their consideration was not in regard to personal gain, but rather gains for the organization in entirety. Does the firing of John Lasseter from Disney Studios and the events leading to his firing demonstrate the ethical use of power? John Lasseter’s termination from Disney represented an unethical use of power. The termination was unfair and ungrounded; it represented an unethical use of power. This unethical use of power began in prior times leading up to his firing, when he was reprimanded for pursuing new forms of computer animation. The leadership did not find Lasseter’s proposals to be acceptable, citing the reason as the cost of production being too high. This claim was also unfounded, as Lasseter, himself, explained to executives that the cost was no higher than the current animated features. Nonetheless, executives at Disney shot down his ideas and perceived his actions as being detrimental to the organization. Immediately after presenting his ideas, he was terminated from Disney. No reasons were cited for the termination, there was no opportunity for negotiation, and conflict resolution was not attempted. The sequence of these events illustrate that Disney executives’ grounds for termination were unethical. Their only intent was with regard to money, not support of employees or innovation of animation. Did the firing  of John Lasseter indicate the existence of political behavior in the Disney organization? This case is a great example of political behavior within an organization. The Disney organization was structured in a way that only top leaders had decision-making authority. In addition, it is obvious that power struggles were in play throughout the organization and money was a top consideration. Political behavior is described perfectly in the case study when Lasseter explains that he was told, â€Å"You put in your time for 20 years and do what you’re told, and then you can be in charge.† This type of behavior in an organization indicates that employees are expected to obey their superiors, that there is no acceptance of individualism, and that input is not to be given unless you are at the highest level of management. Describe a situation, from your experience, where political behavior in an organization contributed to benefit or detriment you or someone else. In a previous job, I worked in an environment where three other women had worked together already for many years. I felt as though political behavior was in place in that they had a preconceived idea of what the person in my position would need to conform to in order to succeed in the company. I proved to not fit this mold. From the beginning, I wanted to improve tasks so that they were done more efficiently, save time, and become more productive. The small changes I made to processes were not received well by these other women. They wanted to keep everything the way it already was, even if a more efficient method was available. Other people within the company welcomed the changes, as it freed up time that I could spend doing other tasks that would, in turn, save them time. This was not the case with my immediate manager and her coworkers. Over time, the tone in the office became more hostile and I felt like I could not please them. One day, as I was getting ready for work, I received a phone call saying to not come in, that I was being terminated. There were no reasons for the termination, and no other events leading to the termination explained it except for the political behavior in the office. References Changing Minds. (2013). French and Raven’s forms of power. Retrieved from Clements, C. & Washbush, J. (2014). The two faces of leadership. Techsis Investors. Retrieved from

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Microplastic Pollution

Microplastic pollution is an increasing problem in the marine environment. This study had five research objectives: establish if seagrass habitats are accumulating microplastics compared to sandy habits in the Florida Keys, identify if there are any microplastics present in field collected sea cucumbers in the Florida Keys, determine the number of microplastics in Pensacola Beach sediment, determine the number of microplastics in St. Joseph Bay sediment, analyze field collected sand dollars in the Panhandle of Florida for microplastics, and conduct a laboratory experiment on the sand dollar, Mellita tenuis, to determine if they are selecting for microplastics. Microplastics were extracted from samples using a saturated CaCl2 solution, and visual examination. Both seagrass beds and sandy areas in the Florida Keys contained microplastics. Sediment in Pensacola and St. Joseph Bay both contained microplastics. Sea cucumbers collected in the Florida Keys, and sand dollars collected in the Panhandle of Florida, had microplastics as part of their gut content, suggesting they may make useful animals for monitoring nearshore environments for microplastic pollution. In the laboratory, M. tenuis ingested microplastics in slightly lower proportions compared to surrounding sediment. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Microplastics Plastic production has been increasing worldwide for the last sixty years, with manufacturing increasing about 9% each year. In 2007, 260 million tons of plastic were produced (PlasticsEurope 2008). The high durability, low cost, and light weight have made plastic the material of choice in creating many products (Andrady and Neal 2009; Thompson et al. 2009). The incredible success of the plastic industry was unexpected, thus when plastics were first introduced, dangers to the environment were ignored (Stefatos et al. 1999; Derraik 2002). In 2010, between 4.8 to 12.7 million metric tons of plastic entered the marine environment, and the amount is increasing each year (Jambeck et al. 2015). The consequences of plastic entering the marine environment has only been recently recognized, and is still not well understood. The combination of the long time it takes for plastic to degrade, its ability to concentrate contaminants, and the ingestion by marine organisms are collectively raising concerns for the health of the marine environment. Microplastics are defined as plastic pieces less than 5 mm in size (Arthur et al. 2009; Van Cauwenberghe et al. 2015), although different studies have contrasting definitions of microplastics making comparisons difficult (Van Cauwenberghe et al. 2015). Primary microplastics are intentionally made 5 mm or less for use in cosmetics, cleaners, and industrial scrubbers. Microplastic pellets are the raw plastic material from which larger plastic items are made (Wilber 1987; Costa et al. 2010). Secondary microplastics are derived from larger plastic sources by mechanical, photolytic, or chemical degradation (Mathalon and Hill 2014; Alomar et al. 2016). Examples of secondary microplastics include irregular fragments from macroplastics, and fibers from clothes and nets. Plastics enter the ocean from sources on land and on the sea. About 75% – 90% of plastic debris is land-based coming from littering, and improperly maintained landfills. Areas with higher river input have a higher concentration of microplastics (Vianello et al. 2013; Van Cauwenberghe et al. 2015). The other 10% – 25% come from direct inputs to the ocean, such as shipping, dumping garbage, and fishing (Wessel et al. 2016). Human population density is a large contributing factor in the distribution of microplastics in the ocean and on shorelines and, not surprisingly, heavily populated areas have higher concentrations of debris compared to areas of low population density (Van Cauwenberghe et al. 2015). Beaches near urbanized areas may have 3.3% of the sediment composed of microplastics by weight compared to 0.12% in more isolated areas (Carson et al. 2011; Van Cauwenberghe et al. 2015). With human population growth, more waste is entering the oceans via sewage outfalls, rivers, littering, and industrial discharge (Claessens et al. 2011; Derraik 2002). Over 90% of the variation in the abundance of microplastics on shorelines can be explained by the population density near the area being sampled (Barnes 2005; Browne et al. 2010). Population size and waste management systems largely determine which countries contribute the greatest amount of plastic marine debris into the ocean. If waste management does not improve, there will be an order of magnitude increase in the amount of plastic entering the ocean by 2025 (Jambeck et al. 2015). Documentation of microplastics in the marine environment began in the 1970's when they were first described in the water column (Carpenter and Smith 1972; Carpenter et al. 1972), and on shorelines (Gregory 1977; Gregory 1978; Shiber 1979; Shiber 1982). Thirty years later occurrence of microplastics in the sediment was first described (Thompson et al. 2004). Types of microplastics in the environment include: fibers, fragments, films, and microbeads found in the water column, along shorelines, and in sediment in every marine environment (Wright et al. 2013b; Alomar et al. 2016). Fibers are the most abundant type of microplastic found by many studies, and may be composed of nylon, polyvinyl alcohol, and polypropylene (Browne et al. 2010; Claessens et al. 2011; Alomar et al. 2016; Taylor et al. 2016). Nylon fibers come from clothes, carpets, ropes, and nets. Polyvinyl alcohol fibers are from fishing gear such as fishing lines. Polypropylene fibers are derived from ropes and carpets (Claessens et al. 2011). Washing a single piece of clothing produces around 1,900 fibers that may be released into the environment, thus fiber pollution is often greatest in areas near sewage outfalls (Browne et al. 2011; Alomar et al. 2016). More than four microplastic fibers per gram of sediment have been found in samples taken from areas where sewage is discharged into the ocean (Browne et al. 2010). The ability to determine if a fiber is plastic, or some other type of material, is crucial for accurate estimates of the amount of plastic in the environment. A study in the English Channel found that over half of the fibers ingested by fish were made of cellulose compounds (Lusher et al. 2013)Fragments are usually broken down from larger materials that may be made out of a variety of polymers including polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinylchloride, polyester, nylon and polyamide (Browne et al. 2010). Polyethylene and polypropylene are found in plastics like bottle caps, fishing line, wrappers, cigarette butts, and straws (Wessel et al. 2016). Polyethylene and polypropylene production uses half of the oil consumed for plastic production (Browne et al. 2010). Plastic films are used in products such as balloons, frozen food packaging, and medical supplies (Claessens et al. 2011). These one-use plastics degrade over time becoming microplastics. Microbeads function as scrubbing agents in face washes and cleansers, and are made from polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene (Claessens et al. 2011). Presence of microbeads in Nieuwpoort Harbor, Belgium, the largest yacht harbor in Northern Europe, was ascribed to transport by several rivers flowing into the harbor (Claessens et al. 2011). Castaà ±eda et al. (2014) found a high concentration of microbeads in the Saint Lawrence River coming from industrial sewage. Microbeads have a higher density than many plastics, so it is hypothesized that microbeads settle to the bottom before being transported further offshore. While this type of microplastic is not normally the most abundant in the environment, microbeads have been used in many laboratory experiments, and marine organisms are known to ingest them (Setà ¤là ¤ et al. 2016).

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Barriers for Women returning to Further Education

In the last few decennaries, the schools have seen a astonishing figure of older adult females returning for farther instruction or FE ( Thomas 2001 ) . This inflow has forced the educational establishments to re-examine their purposes and plans. There is a greater growing in registration in adult females than in work forces. Womans returning for FE normally return after go forthing the instruction at a certain age to indulge in certain duties at place ( Thomas 2001 ) . One of the most ambitious barriers for the adult females returning for farther instruction is happening the balance between school and household, and adult females are frequently seen showing struggle between the two ( Thomas 2001 ) . The other barriers include cultural, attitudinal, qualificatory, situational and institutional barriers ( Evans 1995 ) . Situational barriers include household limitations and deficiency of proper support – economic or otherwise. The adult females who work are paid less than work forces in rewards ( Evans 1995 ) . Pascal and Cox ( 1993 ) stated how the adult females were certain that their employment chances were traveling to increase by instruction. Education was besides seen as an instrument to obtain independency from traditional household constructions ( Pascal and Cox, 1993 ) . Most of the adult females oculus instruction as an chance, while non all can set it to utilize in their existing callings. Those who do are successful in fostering their present callings, and some adult females advanced to direction or professional callings ( Pascal and Cox, 1993 ) . Mau ( 1990 ) has highlighted the jobs faced by adult females from different cultural groups due to many sidelong grounds. Asia/Pacific Americans are socialized into traditional functions and these adult females do non normally think about higher instruction doing it hard for the other adult females to take part in farther instruction. Redding and Dowling ( 1992 ) have indicated that adult females re-enter for farther instruction in order to achieve a grade. Womans who play different functions at the same time have specific demands that are non met by the traditional university rites and patterns of the households ( Redding and Dowling, 1992 ) . Wild ( 2003 ) suggested that there were organisational barriers for adult females to acquire publicities in FE. This can be seen as a cause for apathetic status of the assorted universities towards the re-entering adult females. If adult females could represent a applaudable portion of the senior members, conditions for adult females desiring to re-enter to finish their instruction would be more affable and friendly. This survey recognizes the assorted barriers that are faced by the re-entering college adult females. There are different barriers that have been identified, such as fiscal jobs, household duties and limitations, unequal support systems, and favoritism at the establishments. These barriers frequently lead the adult females to acquire discouraged and frequently leave halfway. The instructors have to go a portion of the procedure of mainstreaming these re-entering pupils. There is a demand to heighten the continuity of the re-entry adult females and strategise the schooling for these adult females to help them in their end of instruction and self -independence.Theoretical ModelThere has been a significant addition in the registration of female pupils in schools and colleges. This addition in the rate of female pupils may be attributed to the inflow of the older adult females re-entering for instruction ( Thomas 2001 ) . Re-entry of adult females as a construct became popular in the 197 0s, and refers to the phenomenon of adult females, who had non completed their higher instruction at an Orthodox age, returning to the schools for formal instruction ( Thomas 2001 ) . The adult females have to opt-out of instruction for assorted grounds including household duties, poorness, etc. So, the re-entry adult females have to pull off the other duties such as employment, committednesss of household, and other compulsory duties. â€Å" Womans have restraints of clip, infinite, resources and socio-economic disablements † ( Evans 1995 ) . Evans ( 1995 ) has pointed out some common barriers that the adult females face in engagement in instruction, like: Cultural, Attitudinal, Qualificatory, Situational, and Institutional. Tittle and Denker ( 1977 ) had pointed out the barriers as household limitations, fiscal jobs, attitudinal features and college limitations. Holiday ( 1985 ) besides stated Institutional and Situational barriers as the chief barriers for rhenium come ining adult females. The cultural and attitudinal barriers are societal phenomena that discriminate the function and position of adult females in the society. These barriers can be seen all over the universe, despite wholly different fortunes predominating at that place ( Evans 1995 ) . Attitudinal differences can be attributed to the deficiency of female function theoretical accounts. While the attitudinal and cultural barriers may be understood as social elements of favoritism, the situational, qualificatory and institutional barriers make it hard for the establishments every bit good as the re-entering adult females to have quality instruction. The situational barriers such as household committedness, deficiency of support form the spouse, fiscal jobs, and distance from the educational establishments come in between the adult females and instruction and at the same clip do it hard for the instructors and the organisations to educate these adult females. It ‘s been found that male spouses are non supportive for adult females to come in the traditionally male dominated sphere ( Evans 1995 ) . The attitudes towards the function of adult females in the households and economic disagreements are some of the chief grounds that discourage adult females from re-entering ( Holiday 1985 ) . The institutional barriers that exclude adult females are sex, age, fiscal assistance, policies related to admittance, rigorous course of study planning and attitudes of the staff and module ( Holiday 1985 ) . Evans ( 1995 ) has pointed out the chief elements of institutional barriers as: fixed hours of instruction, attending demands, a fixed agenda of course of study that makes it hard to catch up with the lost Sessionss, and deficiency of installations related to child attention. Furthermore, attitudes of staff and module are besides barriers to easy instruction for re-entering adult females. Discrimination in the admittance procedure, although prohibited by Torahs in about every state, relieve the private, spiritual and military academic establishments ( Holiday 1985 ) . â€Å" In add-on, the differing informations on ability degrees of male and female pupils enrolled suggest that some signifiers of age and sex favoritism still exist, peculiarly related to re-entry adult females † ( Holiday 1985 ) . The life style of the most adult females makes it hard for them to manage instruction with all the other duties. This consequences in favoritism against the adult females pupils who want to inscribe parttime as most of the establishments prefer full-time pupils ( Holiday 1985 ) . With the addition in the figure of educational establishments worldwide, the demand for the pupils has increased drastically, but, it has been observed that these establishments would instead still prefer full-time pupils over part-timers. The institutional ordinances refering the full-time classs are such that the adult females from a low-income group or adult females with kids can non run into the necessary demands ( Holiday 1985 ) . Evans ( 1995 ) besides recognizes the male laterality in certain topics as a barrier for re-entering adult females. Inflexible choice and stringent entry demands besides make it hard for re-entering adult females to acquire in the establishments for the intent of survey ( Evan s 1995 ) . The fiscal assistance available for re-entry adult females is non sufficient to run into their demands and most of the assistance is normally unavailable to them, as it is restricted to full clip pupils merely ( Holiday 1985 ) . Furthermore, information related to the fiscal assistance is non that easy available to the re-entry adult females, who thereby can non acquire to re-enter because of the fiscal issues even though there are commissariats for fiscal aid ( Holiday 1985 ) . Tittle and Denker ( 1977 ) pointed out the importance of analyzing the programming and cycling of categories for parttime pupils in order to promote instruction for re-entering adult females. Vacation ( 1985 ) , Tittle and Denker ( 1977 ) and Evans ( 1995 ) emphasized the importance of kid attention installations for the benefit of the re-entering adult females. The deficiency of kid attention installations in the educational establishments is one of the most critical jobs for the re-entering adult females ( Evans 1995 ; Tittle and Denker, 1977 ) . Most re-entering adult females argue that their educational chases are hampered by the demand for child care ( Holiday 1985 ) . Apart from these obvious issues, the attitudes of module and staff towards the re-entering adult females have besides been known to impede the uninterrupted inflow of these pupils ( Holiday 1985 ; Thomas 2001 ) . Thomas ( 2001 ) identified institutional barrier as one of the most powerful barrier for re-entering adult females. The chief barrier that the re-entering adult females face may be related to class programming, location of the establishment and â€Å" a assortment of other procedural and rele vancy jobs † ( Thomas 2001 ) . The institutional and situational barriers besides make it hard for the instructors to actuate and educate the re-entering adult females. The male oriented linguistic communication and male images in learning stuff make it hard for the re-entering adult females to associate to the course of study ( Evans 1995 ) . The domestication of adult females ‘s labour and calling aspirations is one of the grounds for the deficiency of motive in the adult females ( Evans 1995 ) , and it can be really hard for the instructors to maintain these adult females motivated to analyze and prosecute a calling. The favoritism against re-entering adult females has been seen in different communities around the universe, although non much research has been put into the barriers for adult females returning for FE in the development states. The surveies refering African American Female Students ( Thomas 2001 ) , adult females in South Africa ( Kok and Van der Westhuizen, 2003 ) , Asian/Pacific American Female ( Mau 1990 ) and Women in South Asia ( Khan et al. , 1986 ) , all point towards barriers in instruction for re-entering adult females. One of the barriers has been recognised as self-concept features ( Tittle and Denker, 1977 ) . This has been related to the calling pick adult females make, particularly the re-entry adult females. Female pupils choose humanistic disciplines, societal scientific disciplines and human surveies, instead than proficient topics, which can be perceived as a structural stereotype that is propagated by adult females themselves ( Evans 1995 ) . Due to the barriers in instruction for re-entry adult females faced by adult females and instructors likewise, the adult females should besides take involvement and duty for their ain instruction by pull offing their clip efficaciously and take parting actively in the educational procedure ( Thomas 2001 ) . Returning to the school for instruction may be hard via media for the adult females, but the adult females should be motivated and committed to dishonor educational grades ( Thomas 2001 ) . The adult females need to believe in societal support systems and use them actively and efficaciously in the chase of instruction. Certain adult females re-entering the educational establishments for farther instruction believe that it can increase their employment chances ( Pascal and Cox, 1993 ) . Merely a little group of adult females use their grades to foster the bing callings, while some adult females find it hard to happen instruction utile to foster their callings ( Pascal and Cox, 1993 ) . However, there are cases of adult females traveling to other callings and progressing to higher professional callings ( Pascal and Cox, 1993 ) . Thomas ( 2001 ) has mentioned that re-entering adult females get excited about re-entry to colleges and farther instruction. There is an immediate addition in assurance in re-entering adult females ( Killy and Borgen, 2010 ) , but there are complains of function overload and struggles ( Thomas 2001 ) . One of the grounds for the administrative defects of establishments in turn toing the jobs of the re-entering adult females seems to be the deficiency of senior adult females leaders in higher instruction and deficiency of female function theoretical accounts. Furthermore, the deficiency of adult females in the administrative places besides advocates the favoritism and sex-role stereotyping prevalent in the society and establishments. There have been surveies in line with barriers that the adult females face in re-entering educational professions ( Kok and C. Van der Westhuizen, 2003 ) and the jobs they face in acquiring promoted ( Wild 1994 ) . Many subjects emerge from the survey of barriers for re-entering adult females. Killy and Borgen ( 2010 ) identified seven subjects sing the experience of re-entering adult females in North America. Passage to maturity and assurance crisis were the two chief subjects, followed by favoritism, diverse calling forms, sex-role stereotyping, the hunt for significance, and multiple functions ( Killy and Borgen, 2010 ) . However, the bulk of the surveies ( Evans 1995 ; Tittle and Denker, 1977, Mau 1990, Thomas 2001 ) have pointed out towards three chief subjects in Institutional barriers, Situational barriers, and Cultural barriers.

Monopolistic Competitive Market

Monopolistic Competitive Market Introduction The term market refers to the place where buyers and sellers meet to engage in transactions that entail the exchange of goods or the provision of services for a consideration. A market is not only characterized by a building where people carry out business transactions. This is because any place that people carry out commerce can be referred to as a market. A market is characterized by various mechanisms that facilitate trade. These mechanisms usually pertain to the supply and demand of products and services (Bergin, 2005).From this explanation it should be clear that a market is comprised of three main elements. The sellers these are the people who bring the products or services to the market to be procured by the willing buyers. At this stage it is imperative to highlight that in most cases sellers are the produces however in other instances the sellers are not necessarily the producers instead they can be traders. The second element of the market is the buyers. Buyers are individual who are willing and able to acquire the products or services being offered at the prevailing market price.Buyers are of two types; there are those that buy the products or services for their own consumption and there are those that buy the products or services in order to resell them in different markets. The buyers who buy the products for their own consumption are referred to as consumers whereas buyers who buy the products or services in order to resell them in different market are commonly referred to as trades and they can also be called arbitragers (Nicholson & Snyder, 2008). The third element of the market is the products that are being traded.The term product can be used to refer to either goods or services that are being offered in exchange for a consideration. The term product can also be used to refer to commodities only. General Objectives One of the general objectives of this paper is to facilitate the readers of this docu ment to gain an understanding of how markets work and most importantly how a monopolistic competitive market works. This paper will achieve this through briefly discussing various types of markets and their characteristics.Another general objective of this paper is to compare and contrast the various characteristics of the different forms of market structures. This will serve to enable the readers to carry out a comparative analysis of the various forms of market structures thus they will be able to enhance their knowledge on market structures. This objective will be attained through the analysis of the factors, which are mainly in play for the existence of a particular form of market. The paper will also seek to analyze how the various factors in such markets interrelate in order to develop a market mechanism for that form of market structure.This is because all forms of markets structures have market mechanisms. These market mechanisms are usually as result of the interaction of v arious factors that are both internal and external to a particular market. Specific Objectives One of the specific objectives of this paper is to discuss the conceptual theory of a monopolistic competitive market. The discussion of the monopolistic competitive market entails analyzing the various factors that characterize this particular form of market structure. This is will be important form enhance the knowledge of the readers of this paper, on monopolistic competitive market structure.The discussion of the conceptual theory will also enable the readers to have a good basis for analyzing and responding to questions that relate to monopolistic competitive market structure. Another objective is to discuss the characteristics of a monopolistic competitive market. The discussion of the characteristics of a monopolistic competitive market structure is important because it will serve to explain how the various factors involved in this type of market structure interrelate in order to th is unique type of market.The discussion of the characteristic of a monopolistic competitive market will serve to enhance the understanding of the readers of how companies that operate in such a market carry out their operations. The discussion of these characteristics will serve to inform the readers the various factors that companies operating in this type of market put into consideration during decision-making. This discussion will also enable the readers to be able to identify a monopolistic competitive market in a real business situation.This paper also aims at establishing how market equilibrium is achieved both in the long – run and in the short run. This is mainly because in a monopolistic competitive market structure, market equilibrium is achieved differently both in the short – run and in the long – run. This analysis is imperative mainly because this knowledge enables the management to have a good basis for decision-making. The analysis will provide f actors that the management should put into consideration whenever they are making decisions concerning either the short term or the long – term future of a company.The illustration of how market equilibriums are achieved in the short run or in the long run will enable the readers to gain understanding of how the various factors in this market structure relate in the determination of the equilibrium market prices. It will also enable to understand how companies that operate in a monopolistic competitive market adapt themselves in order to be able to operate in this particular form of market at minimal costs and manage to obtain maximum profits. This paper will also provide a practical example of a monopolistic competitive market.In this example, the paper will seek to illustrate how the conceptual theory is exhibited in this form of market structure. This paper will utilize this example in order to enhance the knowledge of the reader on how market equilibrium is attained both in the long – run and in the short – run. This example will illustrate how the various factors are displayed in a real market situation, also this paper will utilize the example to look at the type of decisions that are made by mangers of companies that operate in a monopolistic competitive markets structure. Conceptual TheoryThere are four forms of market structure namely, monopoly, perfect competition, monopolistic competition and oligopoly. These forms of market structures are characterized by different market conditions. Markets are mainly classified according to the number of firms in the industry or the form of products sold in them. The number of firms operating in a particular market determines the level of competition in that market. Product markets are mainly categorized according to the number of firms in the industry and the degree of competition that is prevalent in a particular industry.At this stage it is also important to highlight that equilibrium pric es in these markets are subject to the forces of supply and demand. The forces of supply and demand are known as the price mechanism. An individual firm on itself cannot influence the price of a commodity and can therefore only take the price prevailing in the market. Due to this condition a firm is therefore said to be a price taker (Nicholson & Snyder, 2008). The movement along a demand curve is caused by changes in price of a commodity.An increase in price results in a decrease in quantity demanded hence a movement along the demand curve to the left. A shift in the demand curve is caused by changes in factors other than the price of the commodity in question. Different quantities are therefore demanded at the original price. A shift in the demand curve outwards to the right indicates that more quantities are demanded at the original price whereas a shift inwards to the left indicates that fewer quantities are demanded at the original price (Dwivedi, 2006).Movement in the supply c urve is similar to movement in the demand curve. A shift in the supply curve refers to a relocation of the supply curve either outwards to the right or inwards to the left due to change in the factors that affect supply other than price. This means that at each price, a different quantity will be supplied that was previously supplied. Equilibrium price refers to the price, where the quantity demanded equals that supplied. It is the price at which the amount the customers are able and willing to buy is equal to the quantity producers willing and able to supply.The equilibrium point, refers to a point at which the demand and the supply curve intersect. Any price above the equilibrium price leads to excess supply, whereas any price below the equilibrium price leads to excess demand. Excess demand or supply causes disequilibrium in the market. Due to the excess demand for a particular commodity in the market, a shortage is created. This shortage causes the consumers to compete for the l imited commodity in the market thus making the price of that commodity go up. As he price continues to rise, suppliers put more of the commodity into the market (Mandal, 2007). On the other hand, the high price also discourages some consumers from buying the commodity. This scenario of increased supply and reducing demand continues until the equilibrium price and quantity are set. When there is excess supply of a commodity in the market the prices begins to fall. As the price falls more consumers purchase the commodity. The suppliers also reduce the amount of the commodity they are releasing into the market due to the falling prices.This scenario of falling supply and increasing demand continues until the equilibrium price and quantity are set. It is also important to highlight that a general assumption in the study of this subject is that firms aim at attaining maximum profits using minimal costs possible. This means during decision making the managers of the firm will always aim a t using the least resources possible and utilise them efficiently in order to attain the maximum achievable profits possible. The level of output that will bring about maximum profit in a firm depends on the costs incurred and the revenues earned.Revenues refers to incomes obtained by a firm from the sale of its outputs and they may be categorized into three namely, total revenue, average revenue and marginal revenue. Total revenue refers to the total income earned by a firm from the sale of its output. Total revenue is obtained through multiplying the total output sold by the price. Average revenue refers to income per unit of output. Average revenue can be obtained by dividing the total revenue obtained by the number of units of output. It is important to note that the average revenue is the same as the price of the commodity (Dwivedi, 2006).This implies that the average revenue curve, which relates average revenues to output, is the same as the demand curve, which relates prices to output. Marginal revenue refers to the addition to the total revenue arising from the sale of an additional unit of output. Marginal revenue can also be obtained by subtracting the previous total revenue from the current one and can be seen to be equal to the price and average revenue. Characteristics of a monopolistic competitive market This is a market structure that combines aspects of perfect competition and those of a monopoly.There are many sellers and many buyers just like in perfect competition. The commodities dealt with are similar but each firm tends to differentiate its products from those of its competitors through acts such as branding, packing, wrapping and coloring. A monopolistic competitive market structure is a combination of the features that will be discussed in the succeeding paragraphs. In a monopolistic competitive market there exist many buyers and sellers. This comes in adequately because there is no single firm that can influence the prices of commoditi es or services in the market.If a business sells its goods or services above the market price then consumers can buy their goods from other businessmen. If a company sells its products at a lower price then chances of making a loss is very high (Mandal, 2007). Though a business may increase its prices in a perfect competition, the action may be risky since customers will move to another business. This is not the case with a monopolistic business, though a firm may lose some of the customers, some will remain due to the kind of relationship they have with the seller or even the quality of the given products.All the aforementioned factors are due to the fact that there is a large number of buyers and customers that act independently. In this form of market structure it is assumed that the sellers and the buyers of commodities are well informed about the market. That is they know the prices, quality of products and all the factors affecting the market. In this market the products are d ifferentiated. The products from different producers either vary in quality or the product is a group of commodities which are close substitutes of each other (Mandal, 2007).For instance, in the toothpaste industry there are different brands such as Colgate, Close– up and Aquafresh. This differentiation of products from different firms enables each firm to enjoy a certain degree of monopoly power. A monopolistic competitive market is characterized by freedom of entry and exit. This means there are no barriers to a business entering or living the market. This means that new firms wishing to supply the same commodity are free to do so (Bergin, 2005). Similarly, existing firms wishing to leave the market are free to do so.How to determine equilibrium in the short – run and long – run on Monopolistic Competitive Market Structure Price and output determination under monopolistic competition Due to product differentiation, a firm under monopolistic competition is able to exercise some influence on the price of the product. This means that a firm can raise prices yet some customers will still buy at these high prices (Dwivedi, 2006). However, many customers will switch to rivals’ products. On the other hand, if the firm lowers the price, it would attract some buyers from the rival firms, thereby increasing its product’s demand.A monopolistically competitive market has a demand curve that slopes downward from left to right. In a monopolistic competitive market the demand curve is fairly elastic. This means that a small change in price will bring about more than proportionate changes in quantities demanded. This is because there are many substitutes in the market. The demand curve is more elastic than the one faced by a monopolist but less elastic than a perfectly competitive market whose demand is perfectly elastic (Jehle & Reny, 2011). The relationship between average revenue and marginal revenue is similar to that of a monopolist.F or average revenue to be increasing as more units of output are sold, the marginal revenue must be lower than the average revenue. Short – run equilibrium output under monopolistic competition A firm under monopolistic competition will be at equilibrium at an output when profits are maximized. This is the position when marginal revenue is equal to marginal cost. This is at price P1 and quantity Qe. However, there still excess demand and the firm can maximize its profits by changing price Pe. The firm will therefore produce quantity Qe and sell at price Pe (Jehle & Reny, 2011).Qe represents equilibrium output and P1 represents equilibrium price. The price at which the equilibrium output can be sold is determined by the demand Curve (Average Revenue) and its price. Profits are maximized at a level of output between O (zero) and the equilibrium quantity demanded. Long – run equilibrium output under monopolistic competition A firm under monopolistic competition can make su pernormal profits in the short – run. Since there is free entry of new firm into the market, the supernormal profits will attract the new firms with the effect that demand for the old firm’s customers will be taken by new firms.The demand curve for the old firm therefore shifts right to left (Mandal, 2007). A lower quantity is demanded at each price. Firms are likely to increase expenditure on product promotion due to increased competition, which in turn would cause the average total cost curve to shift upwards. New firms will continue to enter the market as long as the existing equilibrium is achieved and all firms would be earning normal profits. The equilibrium point is where the average revenue is equal to the average cost. This point is achieved in the long run when the average revenue curve is a tangent to the average cost curve.The firm will be at equilibrium when it produces output at the equilibrium quantity demanded (Bergin, 2005). This is where the marginal revenues equal the marginal cost because the firm is in the business of profit maximization. At the point of equilibrium, the average cost is equal to the average revenue. This is so because competitive pressure means that a firm can neither make a loss nor earn supernormal profits. At this point of equilibrium the firm is making normal profits only. Conclusion An example of a monopolistic competitive market is the toothpaste market.The toothpaste market is characterized by firms that offers products that are similar but they are highly differentiated. Consumers of Colgate toothpaste believe that Colgate is the number one brand of toothpaste that ensures strong teeth. As a result of this the consumers are normally willing to buy toothpaste regardless of the price. Consumers of Aquafresh toothpaste believe that Aquafresh is the number one brand that ensures healthy germs and fresh breathe. As a result of this customers are willing to always procure the Aquafresh toothpaste regardless of the price.Consumers of the two products believe the products are different and this is because of the way the manufacturers have positioned the brands. REFERENCES Bergin, J. (2005). Microeconomic Theory: A concise Course. New York: Oxford University Press. Dwivedi, D. N. (2006). Microeconomics: Theory & Applications. New Delhi: Dorling kindersley. Jehle, G. A. , & Reny, P. J. (2011). Advanced Microeconomic Theory. New York: Pretence Hall. Mandal, R. K. (2007). Microeconomic Theory. New Delhi: Atlantic Publisher. Nicholson, W. , & Snyder, C. (2008). Microeconomic Theory: Basic Principles and Extension. New York: Cengage Learning.