Saturday, August 31, 2019
o Work Ethic Jenna Warmund Jenna Warmund Quest Professor Crump October 3, 2012 Not everything in life is a guarantee. If there is something you want in life I do believe that anything can be achieved with hard work and dedication. Therefore I do agree with the Protestant Work Ethic. The Protestant Work Ethic is said the belief that hard work leads to success (Rosenthal, Lisa, 2011). I think Black Like Me is a huge example of how hard work leads to success.After Griffin published this book there was a lot of backlash, but I do believe a lot of good has come from it. I think it has changed a lot of people perception on African Americans in the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s. And I would say that this book was a success for Griffin. At one point in the book Griffin says, Ã¢â¬Å"When all the talk, all the propaganda has been cut away, the criterion is nothing but the color of skin. My experience proved that. They judged me by no quality. My skin was darkÃ¢â¬ (page 115).I think this just goes to show h ow much times have changed. Back then black people didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even think it was possible to become leaders or even achieve their dreams just because they were judged by the color of their skin. I am not saying that today it is completely easy for black people to achieve their dreams because I do think they still deal with challenges and discrimination, but it is nothing like it was back then. Eventually Griffin had had enough, all the challenges and emotions built up. Ã¢â¬Å"Suddenly I had had enough.Suddenly I could stomach no more of this degradation- not of myself but of all men who were black like meÃ¢â¬ (page 132). Griffin faced many challenges in this book. But he never gave up. Hard work leads to success. No one in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world became successful by just sitting around. If thereÃ¢â¬â¢s something you want to achieve you have to go after it, even if you know from the beginning that youÃ¢â¬â¢re going to face strenuous challenges. In Black Like Me (Griffin 1960) there was an instance that disputed my belief of the Protestant Work Ethic.When John Howard Griffin stops to study a restaurant menu he realizes that just a few days ago he could have ordered anything he wanted but now he does not have that privilege. He then says Ã¢â¬Å"The Negro often dreams of things separated from him only by a door, knowing that he is forever cut off from experiencing them. Ã¢â¬ I disagree with the quote. It may have been that way back then, but now I think everyone has the equal opportunity to achieve anything to which they set their mind to.The book Black Like Me just goes to show that if there is something you are inspired about or have a dream that it is achievable. There may be challenges and obstacles that you come across but with hard work and dedication you will succeed. Work Reference Rosenthal, Lisa, (2011). Protestant work ethic's relation to intergroup and policy attitudes: A meta? analytic review. . European Journal of Social Psychology. Vol 41( 7) (e. g. 2), pp. pp. 874-885. Quizlet. (2012). Retrieved from http://quizlet. com/750335/black-like-me-quotes-flash-cards/
Friday, August 30, 2019
Progress in medical science and technology has contributed to the growth of kidney and other organ transplantations around the world. Nevertheless, the gap between the supply and demand for transplantable organs continues to widen. Chronic shortage of human organs for transplantation is one of the most pressing health policy issues in many developed countries. In recent years, the persistent scarcity of organs for transplantation has invigorated the controversy about the determinants of organ donation rates and the magnitude of their effects. In spite of the media campaigns and other attempts to promote donation, the organs supply cannot keep up with the demand, and the number of patients on waiting lists has been growing steadily during the last decade. The Philippines is no exception to the dilemma on the shortage of transplantable human organs and there is no clear cut policy yet on how the shortage could be swiftly addressed. The Department of Health (DoH) is currently pushing for Ã¢â¬Å"cadaveric organ donationÃ¢â¬ and this perhaps, might lessen the gap between the supply and demand for transplantable human organs. But how can one tinker freely with the body of a deceased person? Are there laws in the country which give blanket authority to hospital institutions or to a medical practitioner in harvesting transplantable human organs from a deceased person even without a document or a health card indicating that the deceased is a willing donor? The answer is a resounding Ã¢â¬ËNoneÃ¢â¬â¢. The Philippines has yet to come up with a law regarding Ã¢â¬Ëpresumed consentÃ¢â¬â¢ unlike in many European countries, particularly Spain, which for so long a time has been implementing their own and unique versions of Ã¢â¬Ëpresumed consent lawsÃ¢â¬â¢. Under presumed consent legislation, a deceased individual is classified as a potential donor in absence of explicit opposition to donation before death. With the positive effect of presumed consent laws vis-a-vis organ donation rates on countries which enforced such, it is high time that the Philippines should follow suit and come up with its own version of presumed consent laws. Senator Richard Gordon took the initiative in making the battlecry for the passage of a presumed consent law as he was astounded by the staggering figures of the National Kidney Transplant Institute (NKTI). The Institute reported that the usual Filipino kidney transplants performed thereat have gone down by 20% while the demand for kidney donation is going up by ten (10) percent annually. Global Reality. Waiting for a suitable donor organ to become available may take one week to many months. Unfortunately, the latter is more often the case. This waiting time has been described by many transplant recipients and their families as the most difficult part of the transplant process. Fear and anxiety are normal reactions during this period of uncertainty. In Europe, the average waiting time is three years and is expected to last for ten years or until 2010. With 120,000 patients on chronic dialysis and 40,000 patients waiting in line for a kidney in Western Europe alone, about 15 to 30 % of these patients will die annually because of organ shortages. Every day in the United States, 17 people die waiting for an organ transplant. The number of people in the waiting list for an organ has more than tripled over the last ten years; at the same time, the number of donors has remained relatively stagnant. In the United Kingdom, the active transplant waiting list is increasing by about 8% a year, and the ageing population and increasing incidence of Type 2 diabetes are likely to exacerbate the shortage of available organs. In 2006, the UK Organ Donation Task Force was established with the task of identifying barriers to donation and making recommendations for increasing organ donation and procurement within the current legal framework. In the U. S. , Great Britain and in many other countries, the gap between the demand and the supply of human organs for transplantation is on the rise, despite the efforts of governments and health agencies to promote donor registration. In 2002, 6679 patients died on the U. S. organ waiting lists before an organ became available, roughly 18 per day . In 2001, 6,439 people died while waiting for a transplant, nearly double the 3,916 candidates who died while waiting just five years earlier in 1996. In spite of media campaigns and other attempts to promote donation, the supply of organs cannot keep up with the demand, and the number of patients on waiting lists has been growing steadily during the last decade. One of the most frequently quoted explanations of the gap between the supply and demand of organs is that the number of families that refuse to grant a consent to donation is still large. Approximately 50% of the families that were approached for an organ donation in the U. S. and Great Britain refused it, compared to around 20% in Spain and around 30% in France. Notably, Spain and France are presumed consent countries. In many countries, including the U. S. , Great Britain, Germany and Australia, cadaveric organ procurement is carried out under the informed consent principle. Under an informed consent law, cadaveric organ extraction requires the explicit consent of the donor before death, which is usually re? ected on a donor registration card. In contrast, in most of continental Europe, cadaveric organ procurement is based on the principle of presumed consent. Under presumed consent legislation, a deceased individual is classi? ed as a potential donor in the absence of explicit opposition to donation before death. The severe shortage of human organs for transplantation in the U. S. has prompted numerous proposals to alleviate this problem. In addition to presumed consent legislation, proposals include ? nancial incentives for donors , xenotransplantation, educational campaigns, organ exchange mechanisms for living donors with incompatible recipients and preferential assignment of organs to registered donors. However, increasing donation consent rates from families is still viewed as the most promising route to increase organ donation. Many analysts and health professionals believe that presumed consent legislation may play an important role in shaping the decision of the families. In an international survey of transplant professionals, 75% of the respondents supported presumed consent legislation, and 39% identi? ed this type of legislation as the most effective measure to increase donation rates, the highest percentage among all measures considered in the survey, followed by improved education with 18%. Several countries, including Spain, Austria, and Belgium, have opted for a change in legislation and introduced presumed consent, whereby organs can be used for transplantation after death unless individuals have objected during their lifetime (an opt out system). Countries vary in how organ donation legislation functions in practice, and the terms Ã¢â¬Å"hardÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"softÃ¢â¬ have been used to characterize how much emphasis is placed on relativesÃ¢â¬â¢ views in these countries. In Austria, for example, a fairly strong version of presumed consent principle is applied, although family views may be taken into account. In Spain, as in most presumed consent countries, even when organ removal can be carried-out by law without the consent of the family, organ coordinators in charge of the donation process do not authorize the extraction of organs without an explicit family approval. Another notable example is Sweden, which goes from an informed consent system to a presumed consent system in 1996. Ten years before, in 1986, Sweden had switched from presumed consent to informed consent. In the data, cadaveric donation rates decreased steadily in Sweden during the informed consent period. This downwards trend seemed to disappear after presumed consent legislation was reinstituted in 1996. National Reality. The National Kidney and Transplant Institute Renal Disease Control estimated 11, 250 Filipinos nationwide developing End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) annually. It is estimated that half of these ESRD patients are suitable kidney transplant candidates but only five percent (5%) are actually transplanted to date because of insufficient organ supply and the affordability of the operative procedure to most patient. The past years have also witnessed the development of Ã¢â¬Å"medical tourismÃ¢â¬ as exemplified by countries like India, Thailand and Singapore (but now world-wide) as improved hospital facilities in the less developed countries have attracted patients from developed countries where health care costs were expensive and unaffordable especially to those with no health insurance. In 1999, a TV documentary exposed more than a hundred kidney transplants done in a private hospital from living non-related donors coming from the very poor section of the metropolis, called BASECO in Tondo, Manila. The Philippines is among the world's leading providers of trafficked organs. Reuters named China, Pakistan, Egypt, Columbia and the Philippines as the five organ trafficking hotspots. Trafficked organs are either sold domestically, or exported to the US, Europe, the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, and especially Israel for their transplant patients. In his privilege speech, Senator Miguel Zubiri tackled about the CNNÃ¢â¬â¢s feature regarding the thriving trade of human organs, amidst the poverty in the country. Although he commented in CNNÃ¢â¬â¢s report where Mr. Hugh Reminton made an erroneous slant on the human organ trade in the country, Zubiri admitted that there are some truth to the report. The truth is Ã¢â¬â human organ trade, particularly kidneys, is thriving in the country, specifically in the urban poor communities; that after paying-off the donor, the trader abandons them to face post-surgery risks also without medical attention. In addition to this, the organ transplant sector is rife with stories of traders earning millions of pesos after paying-off donors. This statement could be supported by an incident of kidney sale in Lumban, Laguna where Jose Rivero, 31, a tricycle driver, told the National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) that he had been promised by the broker that he would be paid Php 300,000. 00 for his kidney. However, he received only Php 66,000. 00 which led him to report to the NBI. Special Investigator 3, Joey Narciso, the case officer, said that the country has no law prohibiting the direct sale of organs to a donor. Nothing has been heard of being caught and punished, of conniving surgeons or clinics who knowingly transplant organs that have been sold. Zubiri even suspected that there are big syndicates that prey on the poor and helpless citizens and exploit their ignorance and vulnerability; syndicates which have a growing clientele that includes foreigners and rich Filipinos. During the same session, Senator Gordon disclosed that the NBI is investigating the alleged involvement of doctors and other medical personnel of prominent hospitals in the illegal organ trade after members of a syndicate were arrested for duping several people from Batangas, Quezon and neighboring provinces into selling their organs. Gordon recommended the adaptation of a presumed consent. Zubiri stated that the suggestion could be included in the Senate Bill No. 460 , authored by Senator Jose Jinggoy Estrada.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Final Draft Compare and Contrast: Unhealthy Diets Fast food as we all know; its tasty, handy, and inexpensive. In our day and age it is extremely easy to maintain an unhealthy diet, as opposed to a healthy one. There are some main factors to why, unhealthy and fast food is cheap and easy to get, second reason is because fast food is located almost everywhere and the advertisements can be very persuading, and last is because people simply do not have enough time to make a home cooked meal. This overall can be avoided and healthy food can be the healthy alternative.But fast food is still the priority for the majority of people when looking for a meal. The first reason is that unhealthy food is cheaper than healthy food, which causes more people to buy unhealthy food that is bad for you. Buying higher priced healthy food would do much better for you than any fast food place. Fast food causes people to become unhealthy, gain weight, and maybe even gain a disease. Fast food has bad conseq uences but still is bought constantly on a daily basis. But healthy food prevents you from gaining weight, unhealthy diseases, and keeps you healthy.So why is healthy food not acknowledged as much as unhealthy food is, because of the cheap attractive prices for fast food. Not all healthy food is actually expensive but people do not have the time to find alternatives that would actually benefit them. For example, sharing a foot long sub from subway with a co-worker or classmate can be better than the occasional fast food. This is not the only way you can avoid an unhealthy diet but there is no way to avoid the advertisements. Eating healthy is not as easy as it seems to be, or is it?There seems to be a lot of fast food advertisements everywhere but not so many healthy choices are on their menu, which brings up the second reason. Is it really harder to keep a healthy diet rather than an unhealthy one, maybe? Or people are not looking good enough for other options. In our society, it i s very easy to even fall into an unhealthy diet because of people and media influencing us to do so. There many advertisements for unhealthy fast food but not as much for healthy food. You will see all the advertisements of new cheap deals for unhealthy fast food such as billboards, television product placement, or ven friends trying to inform you on cheap meals. But that should not give you a reason to give in and start an unhealthy diet. You can as easy as look around your area for fast food restaurants that offer healthy food. Or it can be as simple as continuing going to the fast food restaurant you usually attend but instead order something healthy. These are small but important ways of how to avoid an unhealthy diet. There are in fact at least a few other ways you can get out of eating unhealthy junk food.Here comes the option of having to cook for yourself, but not many people have that time or are too lazy to. Even cooking home meals has almost become obsolete because of eve ryone being in a rush to eat. Finally, people might not even like the frequent visits to fast food restaurants but are Ã¢â¬Å"forced toÃ¢â¬ just because they do not have enough time to have a home cooked meal. This can be the result of having a family to provide for, with having to work long hours, to much time spent in class, studying, or maybe even both. And even young students are accustomed to an unhealthy diet on a regular daily basis.There also people who just are too lazy to cook or at least make a sandwich at home for their next day at work or school. Money is also a main result of this because students do not have enough money to spend everyday on food that is more than their 0. 99-cent cheeseburger. That seems to be more amusing to people and they rather do that everyday then staying healthy and preparing healthy food. This is why there should be more advertisement that persuades people to buy healthy cheap affordable food. Fast food will probably be the most common foo d resource only because of the laziness of people not eating healthy food.Also because of the appealing cheap prices and delicious taste. And healthy food will probably stay underrated even though should be the first choice for fast food. Hopefully home cooked meals will be considered more often and taken into action. Unhealthy fast food restaurants will always have more advertisements than healthy advertisements because of all the customers that the restaurant receives. So instead of giving into a simple unhealthy diet, take your time to notice the healthy food and start your own healthy diet. 1
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Final - Essay Example For example, when the British and USA drones are physically present in Afghanistan, control is through satellite from USAF base outside Las Vegas, Nevada. When launched in the conflict zone, controllers carry out the operation on video screens in specially designed trailers stationed at Nevada desert. One controller Ã¢â¬ËfliesÃ¢â¬â¢ the drone, another operates the sensors, cameras and monitors just like a video game while the third person is in contact with the ground troops and commanders in the war zone. The CIA has been using drones in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iraq to assassinate terrorist leaders, most notably the Al-Qaeda leader Osama Bin Laden. At least 36 American armed UAVS are present over Afghanistan and Iraq airspaces at any particular time. Many people have confused the non-flying robots for drones thereby further confusing their benefits and liabilities. Drones have several benefits among them Safety; they have greatly reduced military casualties since they carry no one. They are also significantly cheaper to purchase, fuel, operate and maintain than regular airplanes. Drones carry less risk to the military hardware since they are smaller and can fly much lower than the traditional airplanes. They have longer operational hours without fatigue since they have no human pilots. Besides, drone pilots or operators can easily hand off drone controls without any operational downtime (Collard, 2013). They are very accurate with pinpoint accuracy over great distances thus reducing collateral damage to infrastructure and civilians. Drones are also very lethal to enemy combats than regular airplanes. They have greatly increased surveillance process, reconnaissance, and general military intelligence through spying. Lastly, they a re easier and faster to deploy than most of the military alternatives. Some of the liabilities of drones include limited abilities since they cannot communicate with civilians for detailed
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Minimum Legal Drinking Age - Essay Example The MLDA has proponents and opponents, who hold fast to their respective positions in this debate (American Medical Association, n.d.). Morris E. Chafetz, in Ã¢â¬Å"The 21-Year-Old Drinking Age: I Voted for it; It Doesn't Work,Ã¢â¬ and Toben F. Nelson, and Traci L. Toomey, in Ã¢â¬Å"The Drinking Age of 21 Saves Lives,Ã¢â¬ adopt opposing views on this issue. Chafetz argues that the MLDA of 21 Ã¢â¬Å"has not worked,Ã¢â¬ and is not linked to reduced drunk-driving fatalities (7). He holds that enforcing a minimum legal age for drinking does not take into consideration the deaths caused by alcohol off the highways, and drives teenagers to binge drinking in unsupervised surroundings. On the other hand, Nelson and Toomey take the position that the MLDA of 21 has reduced drinking-related deaths, and decreased binge-drinking in underage college students. Although both authors have credibility and are knowledgeable and logical about the subject, and Chafetz is more accommodating of op posing viewpoints, Nelson and Toomey make a more convincing argument as their stand is supported by extensive references to research studies. Both the essays are authored by writers with impeccable credentials. Chafetz is a credible speaker in the MLDA debate, as he is the founder of the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse and The Health Education Foundation in Washington. His reputation is further bolstered by the fact that he was a member of the Presidential Commission on Drunk Driving, Director and Executive Member of the National Commission Against Drunk Driving and the Presidential appointee at The White House Conference for a Drug-Free America. He is also a Doctor of Psychiatry, with a long history of association with social issues, such as alcoholism and drug abuse. ChafetzÃ¢â¬â¢s credentials are more than matched by Nelson and Toomey, who belong to the University of MinnesotaÃ¢â¬â¢s School of Public Health. Their argument is further supported by a group of academicians and researchers. The reputation of the writers contributes to the trustworthiness of the essays and makes them both credible. Sim ilarly, both the essays are written by knowledgeable authors who make their respective positions clear through unambiguous declarations. Chafetz emphatically states that Ã¢â¬Å"Prohibition Ã¢â¬â is not working among 18-20 year-olds nowÃ¢â¬ (8). On the other hand, Nelson and Toomey are equally firm in their conviction that Ã¢â¬Å"A drinking age of 21 has led to less drinking, fewer injuries and fewer deathsÃ¢â¬ (9). There is no room for ambiguity in either essays and the authorsÃ¢â¬â¢ tones convey their absolute belief in the correctness of their respective positions. Similarly, both the authors display knowledge about the issue being debated. As the founder of The National Institute for Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse, Chafetz is obviously conversant with the issue of alcohol consumption and quotes statistics from his institute Ã¢â¬Å"that 5,000 lives are lost to alcohol each year by those under 21Ã¢â¬ (Chafetz 7). As a Doctor of Psychiatry, Chafetz also demonstrates know ledge about brain impairment and alcohol dependency, in line with his profession as a medical doctor. Nelson and Toomey are significantly knowledgeable about the effects of alcohol on college students Ã¢â¬â this is in keeping with their University background.
Recession-Proof Investments - Essay Example They are people who take calculated risks and believe in identifying areas that are going to do well even in such turbulent times rather than just acting on gut feeling and going for the venture (Kirby, 2010).This calculated risk-taking ability has enabled many people to transform their lives and today the world knows them as some of the most successful entrepreneurs of this era, this ability entails that one keenly studies the sectors that are going to do well even in such turbulent times and have a good measure of what the market is going to do in the near future and then set out on the new business venture. Ã One such industry that has been identified is that of the health care, because this is one industry that is an absolute necessity for the masses, recession or no recession people are going to get sick and there is no way that once a person is sick he or she is going to put off the medical expenditure because it is not humanly possible to do so, the fact of the matter is that people might not go for regular checkups and annual comprehensive tests and checkups but people will get sick and they will need medical health care facilities (McNutt, 2009). This is where there is an opening for the keen entrepreneur because it is an absolute necessity the risk of this venture failing is quite low and with a business plan based on the necessities of people it is always going to be successful provided the sector has been studied with immense care.
Monday, August 26, 2019
Youth and gambling problem - Essay Example The third group involves individuals with some kind of neurological or Neuro-chemical dysfunction. This group is highly vulnerable to problem gambling due to impulsivity and attention deficits (Blaszczynski 2000). Such importance and high emphasize on problem gambling lead to the discussion of impacts that these gambling patterns have on the youth which is the major part of our society and upcoming future. The gambling behaviors in youngsters are closely related to their exposure to gambling in their childhood. They start gambling as an adoption of behaviors they experienced in childhood and if they win in the start their greed to win more empowers them to continue gambling. In the losing phase, they are more likely to win back what they had lost earlier. This urge and empowerment leads to desperation and motivation to bring more money with legal or illegal activities and stay in the game. Such desperation mostly resulted in illegal activities like cheating, stealing, robbing, nonpay ment of debts and so on (Hales 2006, pp. 305-307; National Research Council (US) 1999, pp. 169-171). Effects of Problem Gambling on Youth: Health effects: The younger generation is often exposed to other dangers when they involve in gambling within casinos, gaming zones and other areas covered by private owners. The addiction of gambling alone brings psychological disorders, attention deficits, depression, violent behaviors and aggression. In addition to these threats to psychological and physical well being of younger generation, alcohol, cocaine, heroin, tobacco and other addictives available in the play premises also affect their habits and behaviors towards the addictive things.... The increasingly easier opportunities for gaming and wagering available to clubs, hotels, casinos, gaming zones and increased games of chance like X-Lotto, scratch-tickets, sports betting, internet gambling, Bingo etc. in such places exposes gambling to the younger generation more prominently than ever. Advancements in technology resulted in some easier modes of accessibility to gambling. Internet and mobiles are the best sources of easily available components to youth for card games gambling, betting and so on. The increasing use of electronic gaming machines (EGM) in such places help the owners to attract more youngsters and involve them in gambling easily. The impacts of gaming and wagering due to the high exposure of electronic gambling to the youth has been a point of debate among the researchers in legislative, social, economic and cultural fields. Sports bars and Ã¢â¬Ëevents based wageringÃ¢â¬â¢ are two important areas of discussion for their impacts on the youth as these are specifically aimed to target younger population. We can say that problem gambling cannot be described simply as a social behavior as generic, neurological, psychological and biological effects are also involved in describing the problem gambling behaviors. The negative impacts discussed are important to be addressed and restricted. Problem gambling may influence a childÃ¢â¬â¢s social, personal, economic, financial and educational life negatively. Hence, awareness and restrictions on gambling for children and younger population is necessary. The role of parents, elder siblings and teachers cannot be ignored in this regard as youngsters tend to adopt behaviors which they observe in their loved ones.
Sunday, August 25, 2019
CZ56 Critical Evaluation of Current Integrated Marketing Communications Practice - Essay Example First and foremost, most car manufacturers have been forced to adopt a whole marketing picture. Basically, this implies that the market is not a singular unit and the various entities within it have to be given attention to (Aaker, 1997). Secondly, the car manufacturing companies have been forced to re-align their communications and approach things from a consumer viewpoint. This has enabled car manufacturing companies to respond to the various demands of prospective customers (Bagozzi & Dholakia, 2002) Integrated marketing communication has made it possible for automobile companies to achieve different goals at the same time. This in turn enhances their standing in terms of credibility, positioning, network creation, and creating trust among the various prospective clients (Benkler, 2006). This form of communication has also made it possible for companies to conduct corporate social responsibility efficiently. It is also worth noting that innovative marketing strategies have been necessitated by changes in consumer trends. Most clients today are smarter and more sophisticated. These attributes also implies that they are hard to delight (Barwise & Meehan, 2010). Most prospective clients today demand commodities, which are custom made and increasingly adaptable. Thus, there is a need for maximum differentiation that will appeal to the varying needs of various consumers. Understanding a target market is important for any business entity. Failing to properly comprehend a target market can put a huge dent on the prospects of any given company (Castells, 1996). During the pre-launch of the Fiat 500 car, the company did an analysis of the market and realized that most of the potential consumers were relatively young and sophisticated. Thus, the marketing strategy was informed by this demographic of people. The strategy that was adopted by the
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Reflection - Essay Example It is a cause of worry since organizations must have continuity in good leadership to be able to maintain its productivity. An organization is safer when it adopts risk prevention measures, and equips current and future leaders with skills necessary to cope with any organizational changes. There are both formal and informal leaders. They all influence an organization towards achieving its goals effectively. Organizational success goes beyond an individual leaders will to achieve and the organizations chain of command. Most importantly, it is how all leaders relate together towards achievement of set goals. This is termed as collective leadership as William (2011) observes. In addition, James and Barry (2001) suggest that several things should be considered. They include: the number of leaders needed currently and expected in the future by an organization. This enables an organization base its leadership strategies on the expected turnover of employees in the organization. Leadership culture entails how leadership is practiced for example employee relations, discharge of duties and working together for a common purpose. The culture ensures that all factors affecting growth and performance of the enterprise are pooled together towards the same set targets. Demand and supply forecasting is crucial in ensuring the number of leaders employed is specific to the present and future expected needs Another factor to consider is the quality of leaders desired. Every organization must aim at employing high quality leaders for a competitive organization. Phillip (2010) sees a leader as a person who owns and takes responsibility for every action an organization takes and feels any loss incurred as his own. For organizational success, there must be leaders who are goal oriented and put all their effort and hard work to ensuring achievement of goals and
Friday, August 23, 2019
Week 4 - Assignment Example The trait theory examines various personal attributes that a person has, and provides a deeper look into how they act, look, think, feel and function in varied circumstances and settings. The theory is used by organizations all over the world to help understand their employees better in their quest to utilize their creativity and specialties. The trait theory expounds the ability that a leader has across several industries. NardelliÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership style was a bit interesting. In some way, he is considered a mastermind because he raised the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s profits, and reformed the organizational structure. However, the problem arose when his leadership style started to rub shareholders, employees, and customers the wrong way. With his authoritative and militaristic leadership style, employees were not confortable at general meetings. Shareholders were even upset at the way he conducted himself. While he was a CEO at Home Depot, Nardelli embarked on a bellicose plan to centraliz e control in the organization. He often neglected the sense of humility, enthusiasm of his subordinates, as well as care of the shareholders. Nardelli was maniacal about objectives and goals, and ignored the autonomy of others. This was unethical since he did not respect the autonomy of other people. Instead, he treated them as subjects by heavily investing in technology as a way of monitoring everything the top managers were doing (Baack, 2012). All leaders have a room to grow their leadership styles, and should be compassionate towards their employees, but when they refute to adapt to change, and remove salespersons that provided customers with a sense of security while shopping, a problem arises. In terms of performing his duties to help the organization grow, Nardelli did that, but at the expense of reducing the probability of future sales, by reducing the quality of service to its customers. According to the theory
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Mayanmar Army Essay Introduction 1.The Myanmar Army (Tatmadaw Kyee in local language) is the land component of the Military of Myanmar. The Myanmar Army is the largest branch of the Armed Forces of Myanmar and has the primary responsibility of conducting land-based military operations. The Myanmar Army maintains the second largest active force in Southeast Asia after Vietnams Vietnam Peoples Army. 2.The Myanmar Army has a troop strength around 492,000. The army has rich combat experience in fighting insurgents in rough terrains, considering it has been conducting non-stop counter-insurgency operations against ethnic and political insurgents since its inception in 1948. 3.The force is headed by the Commander in Chief (Army), currently Vice Senior General Maung Aye. The highest rank in the Myanmar Army is Senior General, equivalent to Field Marshal position in Western Armies and is currently held by Senior General Than Shwe. The defence budget of the Myanmar Military is 7.07 billion US dollars. 4.Defence Policy of Myanmar Tatmadaw was formally declared in February, 1999. The declared policy outlined the doctrine of total peoples defence for the Union of Myanmar. Threats to the national unity, territorial integrity and sovereign independence of the Union of Myanmar are the most important security objectives and considered as threats to the security of state. In the process of formulating Defence Policy and Military Doctrine from a strategic perspective, Tatmadaw has undergone three phases. History 5.First phase (post-independence/civil war era).The first phase of the doctrine was developed in early 1950s to cope with external threats from more powerful enemies with a strategy of Strategic Denial under conventional warfare. The perception of threats to state security was more external than internal threats. The internal threat to state security was managed through the use of a mixture of force and political persuasion. Lieutenant Colonel Maung Maung drew up defence doctrine based on conventional warfare concepts, with large infantry divisions, armoured brigades, tanks and motorised war with mass mobilisation for the war effort being the important element of the doctrine. The objective was to contain the offensive of the invading forces at the border for at least three months, while waiting for the arrival of international forces, similar to the police action by international intervention forces under the directive of United Nations during the war on Korean peninsula. However, the conventional strategy under the concept of total war was undermined by the lack of appropriate command and control system, proper logistical support structure, sound economic bases and efficient civil defence organisations. At the beginning of 1950s, while Tatmadaw was able to reassert its control over most part of the country, Kuomintang (KMT) troops under General Li Mai, with support from United States, invaded Myanmar and used the countrys frontier as a springboard for attack against Peoples Republic of China, which in turn became the external threat to state security and sovereignty of Myanmar. The first phase of the doctrine was tested for the first time in Operation Naga Naing in February 1953 against invading KMT forces. The doctrine did not take into account logistic and political support for KMT from United States and as a result it failed to deliver the objectives and ended in humiliating defeat for the Tatmadaw. The then Tatmadaw leadership argued that the excessive media coverage was partly to blame for the failure of Operation Naga Naing. For example, Brigadier General Maung Maung pointed out that newspapers, such as the Nation, carried reports detailing the training and troops positioning, even went as far to the name and social background of the commanders who are leading the operation thus losing the element of surprise. Colonel Saw Myint, who was second in command for the operation, also complained about the long lines of communications and the excessive pressure imposed upon the units for public relations activities in order to prove that the support of the people was behind the operation. 6.Second phase (KMT invasion/BSPP era).Despite failure, Tatmadaw continued to rely on this doctrine until the mid 1960s. The doctrine was under constant review and modifications throughout KMT invasion and gained success in anti-KMT operations in the mid and late 1950s. However, this strategy became increasingly irrelevant and unsuitable in the late 1950s as the insurgents and KMT changed their positional warfare strategy to hit-and-run guerrilla warfare. At the 1958 Tatmadaws annual Commanding Officers (COs) conference, Colonel Kyi Win submitted a report outlining the requirement for new military doctrine and strategy. He stated that Tatmadaw did not have a clear strategy to cope with insurgents, even though most of Tatmadaws commanders were guerrilla fighters during the anti-British and Japanese campaigns during the Second World War, they had very little knowledge of anti-guerrilla or counterinsurgency warfare. Based upon Colonel Kyi Wins report, Tatmadaw begin developing an appropriate military doctrine and strategy to meet the requirements of counterinsurgency warfare. 7.This second phase of the doctrine was to suppress insurgency with peoples war and the perception of threats to state security was more of internal threats. During this phase, external linkage of internal problems and direct external threats were minimised by the foreign policy based on isolation. It was common view of the commanders that unless insurgency was suppressed, foreign interference would be highly probable, therefore counterinsurgency became the core of the new military doctrine and strategy. Beginning in 1961, the Directorate of Military Training took charge the research for national defence planning, military doctrine and strategy for both internal and external threats. This included reviews of international and domestic political situations, studies of the potential sources of conflicts, collection of information for strategic planning and defining the possible routes of foreign invasion.. In 1962, as part of new military doctrine planning, principles of anti-guerrilla warfare were outlined and counterinsurgency-training courses were delivered at the training schools. The new doctrine laid out three potential enemies and they are internal insurgents, historical enemies with roughly an equal strength (i.e. Thailand), and enemies with greater strength. It states that in suppressing insurgencies, Tatmadaw must be trained to conduct long-range penetration with a tactic of continuous search and destroy. Reconnaissance, Ambush and all weather day and night offensive and attack capabilities along with winning the hearts and minds of people are important parts of anti-guerrilla warfare. For countering an historical enemy with equal strength, Tatmadaw should fight a conventional warfare under total war strategy, without giving up an inch of its territory to the enemy. For powerful enemy and foreign invaders, Tatmadaw should engage in total peoples war, with a special focus on g uerrilla strategy. 8.To prepare for the transition to the new doctrine, Brigadier General San Yu, the then Vice Chief of Staff (Army), sent a delegation led by Lieutenant Colonel Thura Tun Tin was sent to Switzerland, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia and East Germany in July 1964 to study organisation structure, armaments, training, territorial organisation and strategy of peoples militias. A research team was also formed at General Staff Office within the War Office to study defence capabilities and militia formations of neighbouring countries. The new doctrine of total peoples war, and the strategy of anti-guerrilla warfare for counterinsurgency and guerrilla warfare for foreign invasion, were designed to be appropriate for Myanmar. The doctrine flowed from the countrys independent and active foreign policy, total peoples defence policy, the nature of perceived threats, its geography and the regional environment, the size of its population in comparison with those of its neighbours, the relatively underdeveloped nature of its economy and its historical and political experiences. The doctrine was based upon three totalities: population, time and space (du-thone-du) and four strengths: manpower, material, time and morale (Panama-lay-yat). The doctrine did not develop concepts of strategic denial or counter-offensive capabilities. It relied almost totally on irregular low-intensity warfare, such as its guerrilla strategy to counter any form of foreign invasion. The overall counterinsurgency strategy included not only elimination of insurgents and their support bases with the four cut strategy, but also the building and designation of white area and black area as well. 9.In April 1968, Tatmadaw introduced special warfare training programmes at Command Training Centres at various regional commands. Anti-Guerrilla warfare tactics were taught at combat forces schools and other training establishments with special emphasis on ambush and counter-ambush, counterinsurgency weapons and tactics, individual battle initiative for tactical independence, commando tactics, and reconnaissance. Battalion size operations were also practised in the South West Regional Military Command area. The new military doctrine was formally endorsed and adopted at the first party congress of the BSPP in 1971. BSPP laid down directives for complete annihilation of the insurgents as one of the tasks for national defence and state security and called for liquidation of i nsurgents through the strength of the working people as the immediate objective. This doctrine ensures the role of Tatmadaw at the heart of national policy making. 10.Throughout BSPP era, the total peoples war doctrine was solely applied in counterinsurgency operations, since Myanmar did not face any direct foreign invasion throughout the period. In 1985, the then Lieutenant General Saw Maung, Vice-Chief of Staff of Tatmadaw reminded his commanders during his speech at the Command and General Staff College. In Myanmar, during that time, out of nearly 35 million people, the combined armed forces (army, navy and air force) are about two hundred thousand. In terms of percentage, that is about 0.01 percent. It is simply impossible to defend a country the size of ours with only this handful of troops therefore, what we have to do in the case of foreign invasion is to mobilise people in accordance with the total peoples war doctrine. In order to defend our country from aggressors, the entire population must be involved in the war effort as the support of people dictate the outcome of the war. 11.Third phase (SLORC/SPDC era).The third phase of doctrinal development of Myanmar Armed Forces came after the military take over and formation of State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) in September, 1988 as part of armed forces modernisation programme. The development was the reflection of sensitivity towards direct foreign invasion or invasion by proxy state during the turbulent years of the late 80s and early 90s, for example: unauthorised presence of US Aircraft Carrier Group in Myanmars territorial waters during 1988 political uprising as evidence of an infringement of Myanmars sovereignty. Also, Tatmadaw leadership was concerned that foreign powers might arm the insurgents on the Myanmar border to exploit the political situation and tensions in the country. This new threat perception, previously insignificant under the nations isolationist foreign policy, led Tatmadaw leaders to review the defence capability and doctrine of the Tatmadaw. 12.The third phase was to face the lower level external threats with a strategy of strategic denial under total peoples defence concept. Current military leadership has successfully dealt with 17 major insurgent groups, whose return to legal fold in the past decade has remarkably decreased the internal threats to state security, at least for the short and medium terms, even though threat perception of the possibility of external linkage to internal problems, perceived as being motivated by the continuing human rights violations, religious suppression and ethnic cleansing, remains high. 13.Within the policy, the role of the Tatmadaw was defined as a `modern, strong and highly capable fighting force. Since the day of independence, the Tatmadaw has been involved in restoring and maintaining internal security and suppressing insurgency. It was with this background that Tatmadaws multifaceted defence policy was formulated and its military doctrine and strategy could be interpreted as defence-in-depth. It was influenced by a number of factors such as history, geography, culture, economy and sense of threats. Tatmadaw has developed an active defence strategy based on guerrilla warfare with limited conventional military capabilities, designed to cope with low intensity conflicts from external and internal foes, which threatens the security of the state. This strategy, revealed in joint services exercises, is built on a system of total peoples defence, where the armed forces provide the first line of defence and the training and leadership of the nation in the matter of national defence. It is designed to deter potential aggressors by the knowledge that defeat of Tatmadaws regular forces in conventional warfare would be followed by persistent guerrilla warfare in the occupied areas by people militias and dispersed regular troops which would eventually wear down the invading forces, both physically and psychologically, and leave it vulnerable to a counter-offensive. If the conventional strategy of strategic denial fails, then the Tatmadaw and its auxiliary forces will follow Maos strategic concepts of strategic defensive, strategic stalemate and strategic offensive. 14.Over the past decade, through a series of modernisation programs, Tatmadaw has developed and invested in better Command, Control, Communication and Intelligence system; real-time intelligence; formidable air defence system; and early warning systems for its strategic denial and total peoples defence doctrine. Structure of Myanmar Army 15.The Army has always been by far, the largest service in Myanmar and has always received the lions share of the Defence Budget. [Working Papers Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, ANU] [Andrew Selth: Power Without Glory (ISBN-10: 1891936131)] It has played the most prominent part in Myanmars struggle against the 40 or more insurgent groups since 1948 and acquired a reputation as a tough and resourceful military force. In 1981, it was described as probably the best army to fight insurgency in Southeast Asia, apart from Vietnams. [Far Eastern Economic Review, 20 May 1981] This judgement was echoed in 1983, when another observer noted that Myanmars Infantry is generally rated as one of the toughest, most combat seasoned in Southeast Asia. [Far Eastern Economic Review, 7 July 1983] 16. In 1985, a foreign journalist with the rare experience of seeing Burmese soldiers in action against ethnic insurgents and narco-armies was thoroughly impressed by their fighting skills, endurance and discipline. [Bertil Lintner, Land of Jade] Other commentators throughout that time characterised the Myanmar Army as the toughest, most effective light infantry jungle force now operating in Southeast Asia. [AsiaWeek 21 Feb. 1992] Even the Thais, not known to praise the Burmese lightly, have described the Myanmar Army as skilled in the art of jungle warfare. [The Defence of Thailand (Thai Government issue), p.15, April 1995] Thai soldiers readily acknowledge, albeit privately, the toughness and determination of their Myanmar counterparts. Despite its preoccupation with retaining political power, the Myanmar Army has never lost sight of its defence role, and over the past 12 years, it has implemented a wide range of measures which have significantly enhanced its military capabilities. Expansion 17.The Tatmadaws organizational and command structure dramatically changed after the military coup in 1988. The first army division was formed in the year 1966. It was the 77th Light Infantry Division (LID) as rapid reaction mobile forces for strike operations. In March 1990, a new Regional Military Command (RMC) was opened in Monywa with Brigadier Kyaw Min as commander and named North-Western RMC. A year later 101st LID was formed in Pakokku with Col. Saw Tun as commander. Two Regional Operations Commands (ROC) were formed in Myeik and Loikaw to facilitate command and control. They were commanded respectively by Brigadier Soe Tint and Brigadier Maung Kyi. March 1995 saw a dramatic expansion of the Tatmadaw as it established 11 Military Operations Commands (MOC)s in that month. MOCs are similar to Mechanized Infantry Divisions in western armies, each with 10 regular infantry battalions (Chay Hlyin Tatyin), a headquarters, and organic support units including field artillery batteries. Then in 1996, two new RMC were opened, Coastal Region RMC was opened in Myeik with Brigadier Sit Maung as commander and Triangle Region RMC in Kengtung with Brigadier Thein Sein as commander. Three more new ROCs were opened in Kalay, Bhamo and Mongsat. In late 1998, two new MOCs were opened in Bokepyin and Mongsat. [WP 342. Australian National University] The most significant expansion after the infantry in the army was in Armour and Artillery. Beginning in 1990, the Myanmar Army (Tatmadaw) procured 18 T-69II tanks and 48 T-63 amphibious light tanks from China. Further procurements were made, including several hundred Type 85 and Type 92 armoured personnel carriers (APC). By the beginning of 1998, Tatmadaw had about 100+ T-68II main battle tanks, a similar number of T-63 amphibious light tanks and several T-59D tanks. These tanks and armoured personnel carriers were distributed into five armoured infantry battalions and five tank battalions and formed the first Armoured Division of the Tatmadaw under the name of 71st Armoured Operations Command with its headquarters in Pyawbwe. Strength and organization 18.By 2000, the Myanmar Army had reached some 370,000 all ranks. There were 337 infantry battalions, including 266 light infantry battalions. Although the Myanmar Armys organisational structure was based upon the regimental system, the basic manoeuvre and fighting unit is the battalion, known as Tat Yin in Burmese, which comprised a headquarters unit; four rifle companies (tat khwe) with three rifle platoons (Tat Su) each; an administration company with medical, transport, logistics and signals units; a heavy weapons company including mortar, machine gun and recoilless gun platoons. Each battalion is commanded a Lieutenant Colonel (du bo hmu gyi) with a Major (bo hmu) as 2IC (Second in Command), with a total establishment strength of 27 officers and 723 other ranks. Light infantry battalions in Myanmar Army have much lower establishment strength of around 500; as a result this often leads to these units being mistakenly identified by the observers and reporters as under strength infantry battalions. 19.With its significantly increased personnel numbers, weaponry and mobility, todays Tatmadaw Kyee is a formidable conventional defence force for the Union of Myanmar. Troops ready for combat duty have at least doubled since 1988. Logistics infrastructure and Artillery Fire Support has been greatly increased. Its newly acquired military might was apparent in the Tatmadaws dry season operations against Karen National Union (KNU) strongholds in Manerplaw and Kawmura. Most of the casualties at these battles were the result of intense and heavy bombardment by the Tatmadaw Kyee. Not only that Tatmadaw Kyee is now much larger than it was in pre-1988, it is more mobile and has greatly improved armour, artillery and air defence inventories. Its C3I (Command Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence) systems have been expanded and refined. It is developing larger and more integrated, self-sustained formations which should lend themselves to better coordinated action by different combat arms. The army may still have relatively modest weaponry compared to its larger neighbours, but it is now in a much better position to deter external aggression and respond to such a threat should it ever arise. The organisational tree is attached as annexure-A. Commander in Chief (Army) 20.Until 1990, Myanmar Armed Forces has Chief of Staff system and Myanmar Army was led by Vice Chief of Staff (Army). In 1990, Myanmar Armed Forces was reorganized and all three branches of Armed Forces are now led by Commander-in-Chief.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Scientific Evidence in Support of a Mind-Body Connection Essay DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ most famous wordsÃ¢â¬âCogito ergo sum (I think, therefore I am)Ã¢â¬âare so powerful because of their intrinsic validity; no one can question their truth. Nevertheless, what follows from this premise in Meditations on the First Philosophy is DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ thesis that mind and body are completely separate and distinct entities (page 139). He also believed that because of this separation, the mind is unaffected by and can outlive the body (insert page #). In contrast to the undeniable and well-founded nature of DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"cogito ergo sumÃ¢â¬ , these declarations are both inexact and under-justified. It is impossible for the mind and the body to be separate. To properly argue this point I present my own logical train of thought (in the Descartes tradition) starting with Descartes foundational idea of being a mere Ã¢â¬Å"thinking thingÃ¢â¬ . The mind cannot be without perceptions, which cannot be conveyed in the absence of senses. It follows that to have senses, one must have a body outfitted with sensory equipment. Because of this close association and mutual dependence the mind and the body share, it follows that if the body is affected in some way, so too will the mind be. As for matters of the spirit or soul, perhaps it is an element inhabiting the mind and the body as one, as they are inseparable. In the Meditations on the First Philosophy, Descartes begins the creation of an intellectual rebirth; building up from the foundation of his knowledge in assessing the validity of information conveyed to him by his senses. Starting in the third meditation, Descartes begins to doubt everything, stating that because he has learned everything through his unreliable senses, he can know nothing for certain apart from the fact that he is actively doubting (page #). Descartes deduces himself to a mere Ã¢â¬Å"thinking thingÃ¢â¬ (page #), a lone entity floating in space with nothing but intellect for company. What should have instantly dismissed the idea of the possibility of being a mere Ã¢â¬Å"thinking thingÃ¢â¬ from the very start of the meditation is the fact that Descartes could not rationally deny his own senses. DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ willingness to believe that he may not have senses betrays an underlying fact in order to have any kind of information or ideas to actively deny, one must necessarily have senses which transmit information to the mind about the physical world outside the intellect. Descartes own ideas of the world, memories, and perceptions serve as evidence of communication from the outside world to his mindÃ¢â¬âeven if he chooses to reject what was transmitted as hopelessly flawed. Descartes himself asserts that something cannot come from nothing (page #). By this logic, a Ã¢â¬Å"thinking thingÃ¢â¬ cannot know what to think unless given a foundational mental archive of information. Without experiencing anything outside of itself and not receiving any stimulus from the senses, thoughts would be impossible for a thinking thing. The fact that Descartes is trying to deny information he previously believe to be true proves that his mind has gleaned knowledge from outside of itself by some means of sensory extension. For example, when people think, they do it with the aid of language. Descartes never once explains or considers the fact that he is thinking in a languageÃ¢â¬âa tool that obviously had to be learned from an outside source. While a similar conclusion is eventually reached in Meditation VI, the acknowledgement of the senses should have been first verityÃ¢â¬âclear beyond a reasonable doubt. After having accepting the fact that senses are indisputably real, one naturally comes to recognize the need of a body, since there must be some kind of extension through which the senses convey information. Again, using Descartes undeniable assertion that something cannot come form nothing; it must be true that senses have a physical reality. They must have this in order to interpret and communicate information about a physical world. A body is a means of physical extension by which the senses operate. Since one can be certain that senses are real, and because the senses have constantly conveyed information of the presence of a body, one can rationally be certain that the body too, is real. Baby. Ã Throughout all of his meditations, Descartes maintains that the mind is purely a Ã¢â¬Å"thinking thingÃ¢â¬ (page #) med II. This is the position of Antonio Damasio in DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ Error: Ã¢â¬Å"the comprehensive understanding of the human mind requires an organism perspective; that not only must the mind move from a nonphysical cogitum to the realm of biological tissue, but it must also be related to a whole organism possessed of integrated body proper and brain and fully interactive with a physical and social environment.Ã¢â¬ (page #) There is no way of proving that the mind can exist without a body. Our way of experiencing seemingly intangible mental activity may be no more than the phenomenon of chemical signaling between neurons in the brain and throughout the body. It is not impossible that there could exist a purely Ã¢â¬Å"mentalÃ¢â¬ realm outside of our physical awareness, however because our minds are so tightly intertwined with our bodies, we have no sure way of knowing. What we can be sure of is that our minds have a physical basis in our bodies. What must next be argued based on what has been established above are Descartes assertions regarding divisibility of the body verses the mind. In Meditation VI, Descartes comes to decide that though there is some inexplicable means by which the mind and body are linked, they remain two different things. Based on this assumption, he comes to decide that the mind is indivisible while the body, by design, is divisible (page 139). Descartes does not provide a solid logical argument for his assertion. When discussing the divisibility of the body, Descartes abandons his style of lengthy and well-thought-out line of reasoning. Rather, he holds that an amputee, though physically divided from a limb, would suffer no mental alteration. While it is true that a person can survive after losing a foot, it is also true that the mind loses access to all of the information the lost foot would have conveyed about the world: ground motion and temperature, texture, and surrounding material. The foot also gave the body the ability to walk, run, and balance. In this example, division of the body through the loss of a limb would lead to a void of information in the mind. Every component constituting the body is considered and accounted for in the mind. When thinking of doing something or going somewhere, the mind takes in to account all advantages and hindrances of possible future actions and analyzes a plan of action. The mind does this constantly and mostly, unconsciously. In the absence of an appendage the mind must adjust and re-diagram plans of action. It must also make up for the fact that it has lost all of the sensory input that once came from the lost appendage. Certainly in the case of losing more vital parts of the body such as a lung or heart, the mind would be deprived not only of the sensory input, but also of a resource needed to survive; it would be physically altered beyond repair. For these reasons, it is evident that the body is not so easily divisible as Descartes, never having lost a limb himself, implies. In regards to conditions of the mind, DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ chief reason for asserting that the mind is indivisible is that upon introspection, he can only understand himself to be one complete thing. In making this statement about the mind, Descartes is not referring to the brain; rather, he is referring to an entity outside of the brain. An intangible intelligence. As previously discussed, as far as we can rationally prove, the brain and the mind are one in the same. Because The Meditations on the First Philosophy was meant to be an analysis on gaining certainty of reality using a systematic and rational method, the consideration of indivisibility of the mind must be argued in terms of the brain. One of the most famous, more modern examples proving the divisibility of the brain is the case of Phineas Gage. Though there were undoubtedly many cases of people surviving brain damage in the time when Descartes lived, the accident endured by Phineas Gage is well known and well documented. Phineas Gage is a man made famous for his survival of an accidental lobotomy. After being impaled by a metal rod through the frontal lobe of his brain, Phineas Gage remarkably, made a full corporeal recovery. However, following the accident, there was evidence of profound personality change. (Source)Ã From all that we humans have learned about ourselves in the ways our mentality works, evidence such as brain damage, and its capability to completely change a person, this seems evidence enough that our minds are divisible; that they are an ever-changing entities that can survive in cases of severance. As far as a Ã¢â¬Å"soulÃ¢â¬ is concerned, we have no solid evidence proving any such thing exists. So how can Descartes scientifically speculate matters regarding its characteristics, and particularly, its possible Ã¢â¬Å"divisibilityÃ¢â¬ ? The case of Phineas Gage Ã reinforces the argument that the mind and body are not, divisible; those unhealthy in the mind are also unhealthy in the body, and vise versa. One cannot be whole without the company of the other. As for matters of the soul, they are purely speculative as they cannot be supported by any kind of evidence, and should be left to faith alone. Ã [Author: You need to source the Gage case in the text and in your References at the end] Despite inconsistencies in DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ treatise, his ideas continue to challenge conventional wisdom, just as they offered a new perspective to people trapped in the close-minded society of his day. Descartes provoked readers to think for themselves, an action which was at that time punishable by death. Though he would never fully know the extent to which he affected society, his dream of stimulating new ways of thinking became a global phenomenon that continues in the contemporary world. Ã If it is essentially the Ã¢â¬Å"soulÃ¢â¬ to which Descartes is referring when he uses the Latin word for Ã¢â¬Å"mindÃ¢â¬ , than by Descartes own standards laid out in his Discourse on Method, specifically, his rule to never believe anything to be true unless he himself can prove it (insert page #), it can never be proven, for one would have to die first to be sure. References Damasio, A.R. (1994). Descartes Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. New York: Putnam Publishing. Descartes, Philosophical Essays and Correspondence (cir.1641). Translation by Donald Cress (1993). Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company. Grassian, S. (1983). Psychopathological Effects of Solitary Confinement. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 1450-1454. Grassian, S. Friedman, N. (1986). Effects of Sensory Deprivation in Psychiatric Seclusion and Solitary Confinement. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 8, 49-65. Sutker, P. et al. (1991). Cognitive Deficits and Psychopathology Among Former Prisoners of War and Combat Veterans of the Korean Conflict. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 67-72.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
The House of Lords decision in Bolitho (Bolitho The House of Lords decision in Bolitho (Bolitho v City and Hackney HA  AC 232) is a belated and welcome departure from judicial deference to medical opinion but there is still too much deference and more has to be done. Critically comment on the above statement. In any negligence claim, in order to succeed the claimant must show that he was owed a duty of care by the defendant, that the duty of care was breached, and that the breach of duty caused the damage complained of. Kennedy and Grubb comment that the duty of care arises Ã¢â¬Ëfrom a request for medical services by an individual and a consequent undertaking by a doctor [or other health care professional] to provide these services. Margaret Brazier has observed: Ã¢â¬Ë[a] patient claiming against his doctor Ã¢â¬ ¦ usually has little difficulty in establishing that the defendant owes him a duty of careÃ¢â¬â¢. The second stage of a clinical negligence action is to show that the doctor has breached his standard of care. In any negligence claim, the standard of care is set by law and is an objective standard. Words such as reasonable or responsible are normally attributed to such a standard. Such adjectives are not normally equated with a practice that is Ã¢â¬ËcommonÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËacceptedÃ¢â¬â¢. With respect to medical negligence claims however, the law has not taken such a view. The case of Bolam v Friern Hospital Management Committee has established that Ã¢â¬Ëa doctor is not guilty of negligence if he has acted in accordance with a practice accepted as proper by a responsible body of medical men skilled in that particular artÃ¢â¬â¢. The Bolam case was a decision at first instance, but was later approved by the House of Lords in Whitehouse v Jordan. The courts have continuously taken a protectionist view of the medical profession in clinical negligence claims. Jackson acknowledges that this could be due to the complexity of medical evidence, but it could also be explained by a sense of professional solidarity. The medical profession has been highly regarded in society, and the courts have also expressed their respect. In Wilsher v Essex AHA, Mustill LJ comments: Ã¢â¬Å"For all we know, [The doctors in this case] far surpassed on numerous occasions the standard of reasonable care. Yet it is said that for one lapse they (and not just their employers) are to be held liable in damages. Nobody could criticise the mother for doing her best to secure her sonÃ¢â¬â¢s financial future. But has not the law taken a wrong turning if an action of this kind is to succeed?Ã¢â¬ It is interesting to note the difference in policy in cases involving medical professionals. In other negligence cases, the courts have commented that the function of the law of negligence (and the law of torts in general), is to compensate injured parties for loss. The judiciary have had no moral objections to awarding damages in cases where they can apply the Ã¢â¬Ëdeepest pocketÃ¢â¬â¢ principle. Thus, in Nettleship v Weston, Lord Denning had no problems in asserting that a learner driver would be held to the same standard of a competent driver (competent would be ascertained on an objective basis by the court), as the driver would be insured and thus, the law will award damages from the deepest pocket. Yet, there has been considerable hesitation in holding doctors negligent for public policy reasons, despite the fact that doctors will be also be insured. Furthermore, doctors working in the NHS will generally not be personally held accountable for the negligence Ã¢â¬â the action is brought against the Trust vicariously and NHS Trusts in England and Wales are part of an Ã¢â¬Ëinsurance likeÃ¢â¬â¢ scheme, the Clinical Negligence Scheme for Trusts (CNST) administered by the NHS Litigation Authority. The Bolam principle may be formulated as a rule that a doctor is not negligent if he acts in accordance with a practice accepted at the time as proper by a responsible body of medical opinion even though other doctors may adopt a different practice. Ã¢â¬ËIn short, the law imposes the duty of care; but the standard of care is a matter of medical judgment.Ã¢â¬â¢ In Maynard v West Midlands RHA, Lord Scarman seemed to favour an approach that a doctor will not be negligent if there are other reasonably held approaches that are the same as the defendant doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s approach: Ã¢â¬Å"I have to say that a judgeÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËpreferenceÃ¢â¬â¢ for one body of distinguished professional opinion to another also professionally distinguished is not sufficient to establish negligence in a practitioner whose actions have received the seal of approval of those whose opinions, truthfully expressed, honestly held, were not preferred Ã¢â¬ ¦ For in the realm of diagnosis and treatment negligence is not established by preferring one respectable body of professional opinion to another.Ã¢â¬ The pure Bolam approach is the subject of scathing academic criticism. Kennedy and Grubb comment: Ã¢â¬Å"It may seem curious that the law would defer to the medical profession in setting the content of the duty in negligence.Ã¢â¬  Despite the deference to the medical profession in the courts, there have been some exceptions and one example is the case of Hucks v Cole. The case involved a pregnant woman with a septic finger whose doctor failed to prescribe her penicillin. The patient suffered puerperal fever as a result and a number of witnesses gave evidence stating that they would not have prescribed penicillin in the same situation. However, the Court of Appeal held that even if there are relatively small risks involved, the fact that it would have been easy to avoid such risks so easily and inexpensively, is clearly not reasonable. Sachs LJ comments: Ã¢â¬Å"On such occasions the fact that other practitioners would have done the same thing as the defendant practitioner is a very weighty matter to be put on the scales on his behalf; but it is not Ã¢â¬ ¦ conclusive. Ã¢â¬ ¦ Despite the fact that the risk could have been avoided by adopting a course that was easy, efficient and inexpensive, and which would have entailed only minimal chances of disadvantages to the patient, the evidence of the four defence experts to the effect that they and other responsible members of the medical profession would have taken the same risk in the same circumstances has naturally caused me to hesitate Ã¢â¬ ¦ The reasons given by the four experts do not to my mind stand up to analysis Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ The approach taken in Hucks v Cole was also adopted by the House of Lords in Bolitho v City and Hackney HA, in which the traditional Bolam approach was departed from. Lord Browne-Wilkinson comments: Ã¢â¬Å"In the vast majority of cases the fact that distinguished experts in the field are of a particular opinion will demonstrate the reasonableness of that opinion. In particular, where there are questions of assessment of the relative risks and benefits of adopting a particular medical practice, a reasonable view necessarily presupposes that the relative risks and benefits have been weighed by the experts in forming their opinions. But if, in a rare case, it can be demonstrated that the professional opinion is not capable of withstanding logical analysis, the judge is entitled to hold that the body of opinion is not reasonable or responsible.Ã¢â¬ The relevance of the Bolitho decision was initially regarded as a major shift from the pure Bolam approach. Following the decision, Kennedy and Grubb comment that Ã¢â¬Ëthe law has been put back on its proper courseÃ¢â¬â¢. Lord Browne-Wilkinson was suggesting that medical approach must be defensible and capable of withstanding logical analysis. However, he qualified this by stating that this would only occur in Ã¢â¬ËrareÃ¢â¬â¢ cases. Hucks v Cole was certainly one of those rare cases, but it is arguable whether there has been a significant shift in approach by the courts. In Wisniewski v Central Manchester Health Authority, the defendant did not follow a procedure that would have detected that a babyÃ¢â¬â¢s umbilical cord was wrapped around his neck during birth and the medical opinion differed over the reasonableness of such. Brooke LJ comments that: Ã¢â¬Å"Hucks v Cole itself was unquestionably one of the rare cases which Lord Browne-Wilkinson had in mind Ã¢â¬ ¦ In my judgment the present case falls unquestionably on the other side of the line, and it is quite impossible for a court to hold that the views sincerely held by [the experts supporting the actions of the defendant] cannot logically be supported at all Ã¢â¬ ¦ the views expressed by [those experts] were views which could be logically supported and held by responsible doctors.Ã¢â¬ There have been a small number of Ã¢â¬ËrareÃ¢â¬â¢ cases where the courts have gone as far as questioning the logic and defensibility of medical authority. The case of Reynolds v North Tyneside Health Authority, is one such example. Thus, Gross J comments that it is one of those Ã¢â¬Ërare cases where the Court could and should conclude that such body of opinion was unreasonable, irresponsible, illogical and indefensible.Ã¢â¬â¢ Similarly, in Marriott v West Midlands RHA, the Court of Appeal stated that the expert evidence given by the witnesses defending the doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s conduct could not be logically supported. The Court of Appeal also affirmed that the trial judge was entitled to question whether an opinion was reasonably held and Mason and Laurie comment that Ã¢â¬Ë[o]n the face of things, then, Marriott moves the Bolitho test from one of logic to one of reasonableness, which is much more akin to the reasoning applied in other, non-medical standard of care decisi ons.Ã¢â¬â¢ The approach taken by the courts post Bolitho seems to suggest that the courts are only prepared to examine the credibility of witnesses and not the content of their evidence. So long as the evidence given is Ã¢â¬Ëtruthfully heldÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëhonestly expressedÃ¢â¬â¢ then the court is reluctant to question the evidence. Furthermore, there have been a number of post-Bolitho decisions and it seems as though there is still a constant reluctance to question medical experts, and if there has been any departure from the traditional Bolam approach, this certainly seems to have been on the basis of the credibility of expert witnesses, and not on the reasonableness of their opinion. Thus, the subsequent case law suggests a somewhat restrictive approach on the modification of the Bolam principle in its new Bolitho interpretation. Writing extra judicially, Lord Woolf comments that there have been a number of reasons for a shift away from the traditional approach in Bolam. The courts apparently now have a less deferential approach to those in authority. The courts have also apparently recognised the difficulties that genuine claimants have in successfully bringing a clinical negligence claim. At the same time, there has been a raise in the number of clinical negligence claims in England and Wales over the last number of years. Furthermore, with an increasing awareness of patient rights, an increasing loss of faith in the public health service following various health Ã¢â¬ËscandalsÃ¢â¬â¢ such as Bristol and Alder Hey, a judicial deference to the medical profession certainly has its days numbered. Also, as Woolf acknowledges, Ã¢â¬Ëour courts were aware that courts at the highest level of other Commonwealth jurisdictions, particularly Canada and Australia, were rejecting the approach of the Engli sh Courts. They were subjecting the actions of the medical profession to a closer scrutiny that the English Courts Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢ Other commentators have also noted the way in which lawyers approach the issue of using expert witnesses. Teff comments: Ã¢â¬Å"Reassertion at the highest level of the courtÃ¢â¬â¢s role in scrutinizing professional practice is welcome, not least because of current concerns about the dynamics of providing expert evidence for the purposes of adversarial litigation. Some law firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ choice of experts is apt to depend too much on perceived presentational skills and acuity in advancing the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s case, and too little on detached expertiseÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦ One prominent medicolegal authority has bluntly declared that Ã¢â¬ËBolam will only work fairly if the use of hired hands as defence medical experts is eliminated. It would then be possible to talk of a responsible body of medical opinionÃ¢â¬â¢.Ã¢â¬  Teff has thus outlined some of the practices that demonstrate how the Bolam principle is deferential in practice. Lawyers tend to look for an expert who will make their case stronger, and a survey of 500 expert witnesses revealed that about a quarter noted comments that in some instances, witnesses were requested to change comments that were alteration of their opinions. The problems associated with the Bolam test have not only presented themselves in clinical negligence cases. The traditional Bolam approach was also questioned under the scope of Ã¢â¬Ëinformed consentÃ¢â¬â¢ cases, which involve a claim of negligence for failing to warn of risks inherent in treatment. The leading case on the issue of disclosure of risks in treatment is Sidaway v Board of Governors of the Bethlem Royal Hospital. Discussion of the Bolam test was present in practically all of the judgments delivered. Lord Bridge asserted that the law should reject the Ã¢â¬Ëreasonable patientÃ¢â¬â¢ test and follow a modified version of the Bolam test. Accordingly, disclosure of information is Ã¢â¬Ëprimarily a matter of clinical judgmentÃ¢â¬â¢, but this does not mean that the profession is entitled to set its own standard in such cases. Thus, a judge would be entitled to hold that a clinician should have disclosed a risk where there was a procedure that involved a Ã¢â¬Ësubstantial risk of grave adverse consequencesÃ¢â¬â¢, giving the example of a 10 per cent risk of stroke as substantial, but a 1 or 2 per cent risk of spinal cord damage was not substantial. Similarly, Lord Templeman also suggested that a modified Bolam approach should be taken. Subsequent interpretation of the Sidaway case has not been straightforward. The reasoning of the judges in the case is far from consistent, and furthermore, according to Lord Browne-Wilkinson, the modified test put forward to Bolitho did not apply to such cases. The Court of Appeal in Gold v Haringey HA, merely referred to the judgment of Lord Diplock and therefore applying the Bolam principle in its purest form, an approach not generally followed by the House of Lords in Sidaway. The Australian High Court on the other hand decided the issue differently in the case of Rogers v Whitaker. In that case, the shortcomings of the Bolam test were identified by the High Court: Ã¢â¬Å"One consequence of the application of the Bolam principle to cases involving the provision of advice or information is that, even if a patient asks a direct question about the possible risks or complications, the making of that inquiry would logically be of little or no significance; medical opinion determines whether the risk should or should not be disclosed and the express desire of a particular patient for information or advice does not alter that opinion or the legal significance of that opinion. The fact that the various majority opinions in Sidaway Ã¢â¬ ¦ for example, suggest that, over and above the opinion of a respectable body of medical practitioners, the questions of a patient should truthfully be answered (subject to the therapeutic privilege) indicates a shortcoming in the Bolam approach.Ã¢â¬ The Australian High Court specifically chose not to follow the Bolam test in information disclosure cases, commenting: Ã¢â¬Å"In Australia, it has been accepted that the standard of care to be observed by a person with some special skill or competence is that of the ordinary skilled person exercising and professing to have that special skill Ã¢â¬ ¦ But, that standard is not determined solely or even primarily by reference to the practice followed or supported by a responsible body of opinion in the relevant profession or trade Ã¢â¬ ¦ Even in the sphere of diagnosis and treatment, the heartland of the skilled medical practitioner, the Bolam principle has not always been applied Ã¢â¬ ¦ Further, and more importantly, particularly in the field of non-disclosure of risk and the provision of advice and information, the Bolam principle has been discarded and, instead, the courts have adopted the principle that, while evidence of acceptable medical practice is a useful guide for the courts, it is for the courts to adjudicate on what is the appropriate standard of care after giving weight to the paramount consideration that a person is entitled to make his own decisions about his life.Ã¢â¬ The comments made by Lord Woolf in his paper are clearly justified when examining the decision in Rogers v Whittaker. Commonwealth decisions have been far more willing to examine and scrutinize medical evidence and it may not always be a question of what is more preferential for the judge to follow, but it is instead what the judge feels is reasonable. This does not involve the judge merely accepting that two courses of treatment may have both been reasonable in the circumstances in the opinion of medical experts. The judgeÃ¢â¬â¢s actual role is to establish the reasonableness of each on the basis of the evidence presented to him and that does not necessarily mean that both have to be right. Mason and Laurie comment: Ã¢â¬Å"[W]hile the courts are increasingly determined to see that the Bolam principle is not extended [into areas such as judging Ã¢â¬Ëbest interestsÃ¢â¬â¢], they still have an innate reluctance to abandon it in respect of medical opinion; there is a sense that Bolitho, although welcome, is being used mainly in a Ã¢â¬Ëback-upÃ¢â¬â¢ position. What is certain is that Bolam can no longer be regarded as impregnable.Ã¢â¬ Thus, on the basis of the above comment, the post-Bolitho meaning of Bolam is that it is merely a back up for when the case faced by the court suits a change in approach. Furthermore, while the courts have been apparently reluctant to extending the Bolam principle into the best interests test, the principle has already been incorporated into the concept of best interests. Airedale NHS Trust v Bland required an analysis of what was in the best interests of a patient in a persistent vegetative state, who was being kept alive by artificial nutrition and hydration. In an analysis of whether such nutrition and hydration should be withdrawn (resulting in the death of the patient), the Law Lords turned to analyse the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s best interests. The treatment was apparently not in the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s best interests. This was because it was regarded as futile. In Lord GoffÃ¢â¬â¢s words, Ã¢â¬Ëthe patient is unconscious and there is no prospect of any improvement in his conditionÃ¢â¬â¢. In deciding whether the treatment was futile, the doctor had to act in accordance with a responsible body of medical opinion. More precisely the doctor had to satisfy the Bolam test. It is difficult to comprehend how it is relevant in deciding what is in the best interests of a patient Ã¢â¬âconflicting views of doctors will always be Bolam reasonable as long as one other doctor supports that view. In conclusion, the courts have established a completely different system of establishing the standard of care for medical professionals to that of other professionals. The Bolam approach has traditionally been interpreted as a principle that a doctor will not be negligent if other professional opinion holds his actions as reasonable, even if that opinion is a minority. The courts have been deferential to the profession, and the apparent move away from such approach in Bolitho is a disappointment of this deference. Lord Browne-WilkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s words were read quite literally, the emphasis being placed upon the words, Ã¢â¬Ëbut if in a rare caseÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â the courts have only questioned Ã¢â¬Ëreasonable and responsibleÃ¢â¬â¢ medical opinion in a very small amount of cases and it seems as though the Bolitho approach is, as Mason and Laurie commented, a mere Ã¢â¬Ëback upÃ¢â¬â¢ if the judge wishes to find for the claimant. Whilst the courts have slowly begun to depart fro m the traditional approach, more needs to be done before there is any comparison with the approach of other Commonwealth jurisdictions, such as Australia. Furthermore, the courts should be more clear in their reasoning, as it is also important to be able to ascertain objectively how cases should be decided on grounds of precedent. The majority of clinical negligence claims that are commenced, are settled by the NHS Litigation Authority before they even reach court and would it not be more economic for the NHS to be able to ascertain with greater certainty when a doctor has been negligent? Finally, the decision in Bolitho is far from a departure of judicial deference to the medical profession, it is a mere spin on the language originally used in Bolam. The courts now have ground to make in establishing a more fair, predictable and objective approach in line with other negligence actions. Bibliography Brazier, M. Ã¢â¬ËMedicine, Patients and the LawÃ¢â¬â¢ (2003, 3rd edn) Penguin Books, London Davies, M. Ã¢â¬ËTextbook on Medical LawÃ¢â¬â¢ (2001, 2nd edn) Blackstone Press, London Jaskson, E., Ã¢â¬ËMedical Law Ã¢â¬â Text, Cases and MaterialsÃ¢â¬â¢ (2006) Oxford University Press, Oxford Kennedy, I. Grubb, A. Ã¢â¬ËMedical LawÃ¢â¬â¢ (2000, 3rd edn) Butterworths, London Mason, JK et al, Ã¢â¬ËLaw and Medical EthicsÃ¢â¬â¢ (2002, 6th edn) Butterworths, London Montgomery, J. Ã¢â¬ËHealth Care LawÃ¢â¬â¢ (2003, 2nd edn) Oxford University Press, Oxford National Audit Office, Handling Clinical Negligence Claims in England, 2001 Singer, P., Ã¢â¬ËRethinking Life and Death: The Collapse of our Traditional EthicsÃ¢â¬â¢ (OUP Oxford 1994) Journal Articles Brazier, M., Miola, J., Ã¢â¬ËBye-Bye Bolam: A Medical Litigation Revolution?Ã¢â¬â¢ (2000) 8 Med L Rev 85 Keown, J., Ã¢â¬ËReining In the Bolam TestÃ¢â¬â¢ (1998) 57 CLJ 248 Teff, H., Ã¢â¬ËThe Standard of Care in Medical Negligence Ã¢â¬â Moving on from Bolam?Ã¢â¬â¢ (1998) 19 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 473-84 Woolf, Lord., Ã¢â¬ËAre the Courts Excessively Deferential to the Medical Profession?Ã¢â¬â¢ (2001) 9 Medical Law Review 1-16. 1 Footnotes  The establishment of negligence is a common law creation Ã¢â¬â see Donoghue v Stevenson  All ER Rep 1  Kennedy and Grubb, Ã¢â¬ËMedical LawÃ¢â¬â¢ (3rd edn, 2000) at pp 278  Medicine, Patients and the Law, (3rd Edn, 2003) at pp 141  See for example, Nettleship v. Weston  2 QB 691  2 All ER 118  (1981) unreported, and Maynard v. West Midlands Regional Health Authority  1 All ER 635  Jackson, E., Ã¢â¬ËMedical Law Ã¢â¬â Text, Cases and MaterialsÃ¢â¬â¢, (2006, OUP), Oxford at page 123   1 QB 730  above, n 4.  Lord Scarman in Sidaway v Board of Governors of the Bethlem Royal Hospital  1 All ER 643   1 All ER 635  Kennedy and Grubb, Ã¢â¬ËMedical LawÃ¢â¬â¢ (3rd edn, 2000) at pp 418   4 Med LR 393. Despite the fact that the case was reported in 1994, the decision was actually made in 1960   4 All ER 771  Kennedy and Grubb, Ã¢â¬ËMedical LawÃ¢â¬â¢ (3rd edn, 2000) at pp 445   LloydÃ¢â¬â¢s Rep Med 223 CA  Unreported, 30 May 2002   Lloyds Rep Med 23  Mason, J.K., Laurie, G.T., Ã¢â¬ËMason McCall SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s Law and Medical EthicsÃ¢â¬â¢, (2006, 7th Edn) Oxford University Press, Oxford.  See for example, De Freitas v OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien  6 Med LR 108  see for example, Briody v St HelenÃ¢â¬â¢s Knowsley AHA  LloydÃ¢â¬â¢s Rep. Med. 185, Hallatt v NW Anglia HA  LloydÃ¢â¬â¢s Rep. Med. 197, and Rhodes v W Surrey NE Hampshire HA  LloydÃ¢â¬â¢s Rep. Med.. 256  Ã¢â¬ËAre the Courts Excessively Deferential to the Medical Profession?Ã¢â¬â¢ (2001) 9 Medical Law Review 1-16.  Ibid  Ibid. Also see, National Audit Office, Handling Clinical Negligence Claims in England, 2001  Lord Woolf, above n 22  Ã¢â¬ËThe Standard of Care in Medical Negligence Ã¢â¬â Moving on from Bolam?Ã¢â¬â¢ (1998) 19 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 473-84  Ibid   1 All ER 643   QB 481  (1992) 67 ALJR 47  above, n 22  See for example Re S (adult patient: sterilisation)  Fam 15,  3 WLR 1288.   1 All ER 821   AC 789 at 869
The Persuasive Antony of William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar Ã In The Tragedy of Julius Caesar, written by William Shakespeare, the characters give many persuasive speeches, some stronger than others, to convince characters in the story about what is true, false, right, and wrong.Ã After given instructions on a way to present his funeral speech for Caesar, Antony uses knowledge and skill to cover for his persuasion.Ã Antony speaks to the Roman mob after Brutus. His objective is to turn the people against Brutus and the conspirators in a persuading way so the group will no longer follow what is wrong.Ã Antony has skillful ways to help him convince the Romans that Caesar was aÃ loving man and Brutus is not so honorable.Ã He uses verbal irony, parallel phrases with repetition, and questioning of the truth to sway the crowds' feelings. When giving his speech, Antony uses his skill as an orator through the use of verbal irony.Ã Antony tells the Romans that Brutus called Caesar ambitious.Ã That is only what was said; he was not a man of ambition.Ã Antony proves this by saying that Caesar turned the crown down and even wept for the poor of Rome.Ã Brutus is referred to as an honorable man.Ã Of course this is not true, but Antony uses the statement as verbal irony to sway the peoples' minds.Ã Everyone knows that killing someone, no matter what the case, is not a quality of an honorable person.Ã Antony also knows Brutus' reason for killing Caesar was not valid and wants to prove this to the people.Ã When trying to prove himself true, Antony says, "I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke..." (Act III, scene ii, 102).Ã Antony does a swell job covering his purpose of his speech.Ã He is really trying to make the mob see that Caesar ... ...r's true self. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Is Antony's speech for Caesar's funeral a persuasive one?Ã Antony does, in fact, persuade the Romans into believing the truth he reveals.Ã As an orator, Antony's words spoken through specific techniques such as verbal irony, parallel phrases with repetition, and questioning, prove his speech to be powerful and convincing.Ã Unlike Brutus' speech to the Romans, Antony uses true and factual information to back his thoughts.Ã He does a good job referring to the opposition, which is Brutus' thoughts of Caesar.Ã Antony definitely tests the crowd by causing them to think about the right and wrong in the situation.Ã He only wants the Romans to know that Caesar did love them and to realize Brutus wronged them.Ã By being a powerful orator, Antony wins over the crowds' perceptions to turn them against Brutus and the conspirators as his wished. The Persuasive Antony of William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar Essay The Persuasive Antony of William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar Ã In The Tragedy of Julius Caesar, written by William Shakespeare, the characters give many persuasive speeches, some stronger than others, to convince characters in the story about what is true, false, right, and wrong.Ã After given instructions on a way to present his funeral speech for Caesar, Antony uses knowledge and skill to cover for his persuasion.Ã Antony speaks to the Roman mob after Brutus. His objective is to turn the people against Brutus and the conspirators in a persuading way so the group will no longer follow what is wrong.Ã Antony has skillful ways to help him convince the Romans that Caesar was aÃ loving man and Brutus is not so honorable.Ã He uses verbal irony, parallel phrases with repetition, and questioning of the truth to sway the crowds' feelings. When giving his speech, Antony uses his skill as an orator through the use of verbal irony.Ã Antony tells the Romans that Brutus called Caesar ambitious.Ã That is only what was said; he was not a man of ambition.Ã Antony proves this by saying that Caesar turned the crown down and even wept for the poor of Rome.Ã Brutus is referred to as an honorable man.Ã Of course this is not true, but Antony uses the statement as verbal irony to sway the peoples' minds.Ã Everyone knows that killing someone, no matter what the case, is not a quality of an honorable person.Ã Antony also knows Brutus' reason for killing Caesar was not valid and wants to prove this to the people.Ã When trying to prove himself true, Antony says, "I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke..." (Act III, scene ii, 102).Ã Antony does a swell job covering his purpose of his speech.Ã He is really trying to make the mob see that Caesar ... ...r's true self. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Is Antony's speech for Caesar's funeral a persuasive one?Ã Antony does, in fact, persuade the Romans into believing the truth he reveals.Ã As an orator, Antony's words spoken through specific techniques such as verbal irony, parallel phrases with repetition, and questioning, prove his speech to be powerful and convincing.Ã Unlike Brutus' speech to the Romans, Antony uses true and factual information to back his thoughts.Ã He does a good job referring to the opposition, which is Brutus' thoughts of Caesar.Ã Antony definitely tests the crowd by causing them to think about the right and wrong in the situation.Ã He only wants the Romans to know that Caesar did love them and to realize Brutus wronged them.Ã By being a powerful orator, Antony wins over the crowds' perceptions to turn them against Brutus and the conspirators as his wished.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Encryption Data encryption refers to the transformation of data into a structure that makes it unreadable by anyone without a secret decryption key. It ensures that messages can be read only by the planned recipient. Encryption is the procedure of obscuring information to create it unreadable without special information. Only organizations and individuals with an abnormal need for secrecy have actually made good use of it. Nowadays, encryption is one of the most important technologies for maintaining your privacy and the security of important information. This helps out greatly especially when E-Commerce is being used. Encryption converts a message in such as way that its contents are hidden from unauthorized readers. It is intended to keep messages and information as a secret. Plaintext, also known as clear text, is the plain or original message, which is has not yet been encrypted. Once the message is encrypted it is then called a cipher text. This process is obviously referred as encryption. The exact opposite process is called decryption. Encryption is the most successful way to attain data security. To read an encrypted file, you must have access to a secret key or password that enables you to decrypt it. Data encryption is a means of scrambling the data so that is can only be read by the person holding the key, a password of some sort. Without the key, the cipher cannot be broken and the data remains secure. Using the key, the cipher is decrypted and the data is returned to its original value or state. Each time one desires to encrypt data, a key from the 72,000,000,000,000,000 possible k ey variations, is randomly produced, and used to encrypt the data. The same key must be made known to the receiver if they ar... ...M and the US National Security Agency. It was previously the most dominant type of encryption, but it is now being taken over by AES (Advanced Encryption Standard). Since data encryption standard, only took on a 56-bit symmetric key encryption, AES uses three key sizes, 128, 192, and 256 bits. When personal computer users want to encrypt email or other documents, they go to Phillip Zimmerman?s "Pretty Good Privacy" software. This software allows you to digitally sign a message, which verifies to the recipient that you are the sender and that no interfering is involved. Works Cited: "Data Encryption Standard (DES)". http://www.itl.nist.gov/fipspubs/fip46-2.htm "TechTalk: Encryption."Computer Concepts. Parsons, June. Boston,Course Technology, 2006. Pg 328-331. "Encryption". http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid14_gci212062,00.html